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VIEW OF THE COURT HOUSE AND TOWN HOUSE, SALEM. 

From the engraving by S. Hill, published in the "Massachusetts Magazine, March, 1790. 



THE 



HISTORICAL 

COLLECTIONS 

OF THE 

TOPSFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XXVI 



1921 



TOPSFIELD MASS. 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
1921 



GEORGE FRANCIS DOW 
Editor 



THE PERKINS PRESS 



MASS. 



CONTENTS 



VIEW OF THE COURT HOUSE, SALEM IN 1790 - - Frontispiece 

OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY, 1920 iv 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

DEC. 31, 1920 V 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TREASURER FOR THE YEAR ENDING 

DEC. 31, 1920 vii 

ANNUAL REPORT ON THE BUILDING FUND - - - . viii 

ESSEX COUNTY IN THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY AS DE- 
SCRIBED BY EARLY TRAVELERS. COMMUNICATED BY 

GEORGE FRANCIS DOW (continued) 1 

THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 

BY CHARLES JOEL PEABODY 113 

RECORDS OF MEETINGS OF THE CITIZENS AND COMMITTEE 
OF ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CELEBRATION OF THE TWO 
HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE 
TOWN OF TOPSFIELD, 1850. COMMUNICATED BY LEONE 

P. WELCH 121 

NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD, COPIED BY 

GEORGE FRANCIS DOW 128 

TOPSFIELD VITAL STATISTICS, 1920 141 

CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS 1920, 144 

BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED, 1920 144 



OFFICERS 



OF THE 

TOPSFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
1920 



President 

Charles Joel Peabody 

Vice-President 

Thomas Emerson Proctor 

Secretary and Treasurer 

George Francis Dow 

Curator 

Albert M. Dodge 

Board of Directors 

Charles Joel Peabody, ex-officio 
Thomas Emerson Proctor, ex-officio 
George Francis Dow, ex-officio 
W. Pitman Gould 
Isaac H. Sawyer 
Leone P. Welch 
Arthur H. Wellman 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 



OF THE 

TOPSFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1920. 



The membership of the Society on December 31, 1920 was 227. 
Nine new members have been added, two have resigned, sixteen 
have been dropped for non-payment of dues and five have died, viz : 
Miss H. Rose Towne and Miss Bessie Dole Peabody, both charter 
members. Miss Sarah R. Bradstreet who became a member in 1895, 
Miss Abbie A. Smith, and Ezra D. Hines of Danvers who joined the 
Society in 1896. There are now twenty-four charter members on 
the list who joined the Society on January 4, 1895. 

Because of the severe winter weather and the coincidence of a 
series of stormy evenings the annual meeting which should have 
been held on January 9th was postponed again and again and finally 
was not held until May 14th. In consequence, but two meetings 
have been held during the year, both of which were addressed by 
the President, the first time on 'The Influence of Modern Methods 
of Transportation upon the Life and Character of Topsfield” and the 
second time on "The Story of a Peabody House and its Neighborhood.'’ 

Volumes I and II of Topsfield Town Records have been published 
with the cooperation of the Town. Volume I contains 447 pages 
and Volume II, 436 pages. These volumes include the town clerk’s 
records from 1659 to the end of the year 1778. The Secretary has 
in his possession a typewritten copy of the clerk’s records following 
these volumes to the year 1810 which is available for publication if 
at any time the town should consider it desirable to continue the 
work. The printing of these records among many other interesting 
items reveals the fact that the first meeting house built on the Com- 
mon in 1703 was a square building with a hip roof and a turret or 
cupola in the center, while on each of the four sides of the roof pro- 
jected a "lucomb” or large dormer window, sometimes called a 
"peaked window.” Very carefull name and subject indexes have 
been made for these volumes and the varied details of town affairs 
thereby have been made easy of reference. The grouping of related 
items under subject headings such as : bridges, buildings, common 
land, highways, localities and place names, meeting house, military 

(v) 



VI 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



affairs, poor, Revolutionary War, taxation, etc., etc., bring to light 
much interesting matter. 

Volume XXV, of the Historical Collections also has been printed 
and distributed. Elsewhere only the large societies and State organ- 
izations have reached Volume XXV in their Historical Collections 
and then the number is less than a score. The twenty-five volumes 
of Collections that this society has published contain a total of 4073 
pages. In addition have been published volumes of Town records, 
vital records, etc. etc. It would seem that by this time the history 
and biography of the town was well covered but such is far from the 
fact. But the remaining material requires much work and original 
research in the preparation and a considerable expenditure of time. 
After consultation with various members it has seemed best to try 
the experiment of including in the present volume, historical matter 
not relating directly to Topsfield, but of interest in this locality. If 
the idea is favorably received it will be possible to enrich our volumes 
with a great variety of valuable matter that should interest and at- 
tract a larger membership from outside the limits of the town. If 
it were possible to double the present membership or to attain a 
total of five hundred, the society could publish annually a volume 
that would be creditable anywhere. It is a matter for consideration 
and endeavor. 

Mr. Sheahan continues as custodian of the Parson Capen House, 
and thanks to his extended acquaintance, annually makes friends 
for it in an ever widening circle. An illustrated article on the house, 
that was published in the July, 1920 issue of ”01d-Time New England,” 
particularly drew attention to it among several thousands of persons 
who particularly are interested in old houses and historical work. 
It still remains one of the best, if not the very best, example of Col- 
onial architecture of its period. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George Francis Dow, 

Secretary. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TREASURER 

OF THE 

TOPSFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DEC. 31, 1920. 
RECEIPTS 



Jan. 1, 1920 Balance cash on hand $14 11 

Received from annual dues 97 00 

Historical Collections sold 24 50 

” ” bindings sold at .35c 8 75 

” ” ” ” at .40c 17 60 

” ” ” ” at .50c 22 50 

Town Records (Vol. I & II sold) 424 00 $608 46 



PAYMENTS 



Town Records Vol. II printing 


247 


32 


” Vol. II binding 


49 


90 


” Vol. I binding 


26 


50 


” Vol. I & II exp. to Boston & out 


5 


45 


” Postage 


7 


06 


” Insurance 


4 


36 


” Printing circulars 


3 


00 


Hist. Colls. Vol. 25, printing 


104 


40 


Repayment of G. F. Dow loan 


50 


00 


1000 envelopes & printing 


5 


50 


Postals and printing 


3 


88 



Jan. 3, 1921. Balance cash on hand $101 09 



Approved, 

W. Pitman Gould, 
Auditor. 



Respectfully submitted, 

George Francis Dow, 

Treasurer. 



(vii) 



TREASURER’S REPORT ON THE BUILDING FUND 



OF THE 



TOPSFIELD HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING DEC. 31, 1920. 
RECEIPTS 



Jan. 1, 1920. Balance cash on hand 

Dividends United Shoe Mach. Co. stock 
Rent of Capen House (Mr. Sheahan) 



$117 70 
135 00 

120 00 $372 70 



PAYMENTS 

Interest on collateral note $77 00 

Acct. printing Hist. Colls. Vol. 25 100 00 

” ” Vol. 26 50 00 

Binding ” Vol. 24 51 19 

Insurance, Capen House 6 25 

E. M. Dow, ” repairs 6 18 

Mrs. E. E. Ferguson, refreshment at field meeting 6 00 296 62 



Jan. 3, 1921. Balance cash on hand $76 08 



STATEMENT 

On hand 45 shares United Shoe Mach. Co. stock 

market value at 38 3-4 $1743 75 

Less collateral note Mrs. Ada N. L. Newhall 1400 00 



Value of Fund $343 75 



Parson Capen House and 11-5 acre land 

(cost) $2100 00 

Restoration and furnishings 2461 12 



$4561 11 



Approved, 

W. Pitman Gould, 
Auditor. 



Respectfully submitted, 
George Francis Dow, 
Treasurer. 



(viii) 



ESSEX COUNTY IN THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 
AS DESCRIBED BY EARLY TRAVELERS. 



COMMUNICATED BY GEORGE FRANCIS DOW. 

CART. FRANCIS GOELET IN 1750. 

APTAIN Goelet was a merchant of the city of New York who 



made several voyages to England during one of which, in the 



ship 'Tartar Galley,” he encountered a severe storm which 
disabled the vessel and compelled it to put into Boston for repairs 
where he remained from Sept. 29 to Nov. 7, in the year 1750. He 
kept a journal of his "Voyages and Travels,” and abstracts covering 
the time of his stay in Boston were printed in the January, 1870 issue 
of The NeW‘England Historical and Genealogical Register. Included 
are accounts of visits to Salem and Marblehead. 

October 19^^ [1750]. While at Breakfast M^. Nath^ Cunningham 
waited on me at Capt. Wends Agreeable to Promise and Furnished 
me with a Horse to go to Salem, being Very desirous to see the 
Country. Sett out ab^ 10 a Clock from Capt. Wendells and Rode 
trough the North End the Towne and Crost^ Charles Town Ferry 
which is abt 1/4 mile Over its a Pleasant Little towne directly Op- 
posite the North End of Boston and is pleasently Situated Consists 
of abt 200 Houses and where the Bostoneers Build many Vessels, it 
is the Chief Ferry from Boston Leading to the main Country Back 
abt 2 miles from thence we Crost Penny Ferry which is better then 
1/2 mile Over being the Neighest way to Salem. From this to M^ 
Wards is about 8 miles, and is ab^ a mile this Side of Lyn which is a 
Small Country Towne of ab^ 200 Houses, very Pleasently Situated, 
and affords a Beautifull Rural Prospect we came to M^*. Wards about 
One a Clock, and dynd upon Fryd Codd from this place is about 7 
miles to Salem, after Dinner haveing Refreshed our Selves with a 
Glass wine Sett out on our Journey trough a Barren Rockey Country 
which afforded us not the Least Prospect of any thing but a Desart 




( 1 ) 



2 



CAPT. FRANCIS GOELET IN 1750. 



Country abounding with Loffty Cragged Rocks a Fine Pastering 
Ground only for their Sheep, the Rhoads are Exceeding Stony and 
the Country but thinly Peopled. 

October 19^^. Arived at Salem abt 3 a Clock put up our Horses 
at the Wido Prats from whence went to See Colli William Browne* 
where drank Tea with his Spouse, after which M^. Browne was so 
Good as to Accomodate us with a walk round the Towne Shewing 
us the wharfs warehouses &c. went up in the Steeple of the Church 
from whence had a Fine View of the Town Harbor &c. which is 
Beautyfully Situated From which have a View of M^. Brownes Country 
Seat which is Situated on a Heigh Hill abt 6 Miles Eastw-ard of Salem 
Spent the Evening at his House where Joynd in Company by Parson 
Appletont and Miss Hetty his daughter from Cambridge they Being 
Acquaintence of M^. and Browne w^e Supd togeather and after 
that where Very merry, at Whist &c. 

October 2Qth. Lodg’d at M’^. Brownes after Breakfast Saunterd 
round the Towne mayking Our Observations on the Builds &c Dynd 
at his House after Dinner had a Good Deal Conversation with him 
upon Various Subjects he being a Gent^^ of Excellent Parts well Ad> 
versed in Leaturate a Good Scholar a Great Vertuosa and Lover of 
the Liberal Arts and Sciences haveing an Extroardenary Library of 
Books of the Best Ancient and Modern Authors about 3 a Clock we 
Sett out in his Coach for his Country Seat rideing trough a Pleasant 
Country and fine Rhoads we arived there at 4 a Clock the Situation 
is very Airy Being upon a Heigh Hill which Over Looks the Country 
all Round and affords a Pleasant Rural Prospect of a Fine Country 
with fine woods and Lawns with Brooks water running trough them 
you have also a Prospect of the Sea on one Part and On another a 
Mountain 80 miles distant The House is Built in the Form of a Long 
Square, with Wings at each End and is about 80 Foot Long, in the 
middle is a Grand Hall Surrounded above by a Fine Gallery with 
Neat turned Bannester and the Cealing of the Hall Representing a 

*Col. Browne was, at one time, a conspicuous character in Salem. He probably 
married the daughter of Gov. Burnet while the latter resided in Mass. His son 
Col. William Brown, was a prominent loyalist. — Felt’s Annals of Salem; Picker- 
ing’s Life of Timothy Pickering; Sabine’s American Loyalists, 

tRev. Nathaniel Appleton, D. D. 



CAFr. FRANCIS GOELET IN 1750. 



3 



Large doom Designed for an Assembly or Ball Room, the Gallery for 
the Mucisians &c. the Building has Four Doors Fronting the N. E. 
S. & W. Standing in the middle the Great Hall you have a Full 
View of the Country from the Four Dores at the Ends of the Build- 
ings is 2 upper and 2 Lower Rooms with neat Stair Cases Leading to 
them in One the Lower Rooms is his Library and Studdy well Stockd 
with a Noble Colection of Books, the others are all unfurnish’d as 
yet Nor is the Building yet Compleat wants a Considerable workman 
Ship to Compleat it, so as the Design is But Since the Loss of his 
first wife who was Governour Burnetts Daughter of New York by 
whome he has yet 2 Little Daughters Liveing, the Loss of her he 
took much to heart as he was doateingly fond of her Being a Charm- 
ing Ladie when married. But he is now determined to Compleat it 
we drank a Glass wine haveing Feasted our Eyes with the Prospect 
of the Country Returned to his House where Sup’d and Past the 
Evening Vastly Agreeable being a Very mery Facitious Gentlemen, 
went to bed Intends to Proceed to Marble head Next Morning. 

October 21st. Haveing Got our Horses ready, after Breakfast took 
our Leave® of M^. Browne and Spouse. Before proceed shall Give a 
Discription of Salem Its a Small Sea Port Towne. Consists of abt 
450 Houses, Several of which are neat Buildings, but all of wood, 
and Covers a Great Deal of Ground, being at a Conveniant Distance 
from Each Other, with fine Gardens back their Houses, the Town 
is Situated on a Neck of Land Navagable on either Side is abt 2 1/2 
Miles in Lenght Including the Buildss Back the Towne, has a main 
Street runs directly trough. One Curch 3 Presbiterian and One 
Quakers Meeting, the Situation is Very Pretty &c. 

The Trade Consists Chiefly in the Cod Fishery, they have abt go 
or 70 Sail Schooners Employd in that Branch. Saw abt 30 Sail in 
the Harbr have then abt 40 at Sea. They Cure all their Own Cod 
for Markett, Saw there a Vast Number Flakes Cureing, in the Har- 
bour Lay also two Topsail Vessels and three Sloops, on Exams into 
the Fishery find it a very adventag® Branch. 

Wee arived at Marblehead at abt 10 a Clock, which is abt 4 Miles 
by Land, trough a Pleasent Country and good Roades, and is about 
11/2 Miles by Water, it forms a Bay, Marblehead lays on the East- 



4 



CAPT. FRANCIS GOELET IN 1750. 



ermost part of the Land but y® west Side the Bay, and Salem on a 
Point, the Westermost part of the Land and Easttermost Side the 
Bay, before you Enter Marblehead the Roads are Excessive Stony 
and Land very Rockey, affording only very Little Pasture Ground, 
Put up at Mr. Reads where Breakfast and Then went to see the 
Towne of Marblehead, has ab^ 450 Houses all wood and Clapboarded 
the Generallity Miserable Buildings, Mostly Close in with the Rocks, 
with Rockey foundations Very Craggy and Crasey. The whole Towne 
is Built upon a Rock, which is Heigh and Steep to the water. The 
Harbour is Sheltered by an Island, which Runs along Parralell to it, 
and brakes of the Sea, Vessells may Ride here Very safe, there is a 
Path or way downe to the warf which is but Small and on which is a 
Large Ware House, where they Land their Fish &c. From this heigh 
Cliffty Shore it took its Name, I saw ab^ 5 Topsail Vessells and ab^ 
10 Schooners and Sloops in the Harbour, they had then ab^ 70 Sail 
Schooners a Fishing, with ab^ 600 men and Boys imployed in the 
Fishery, they take Vast Quantities Cod, which they Cure heere Saw 
Several Thousand Flakes then Cureing. This Place is Noted for 
Children and Noureches the most of any Place for its Bigness in 
North America, it’s Said the Chief Cause is attributed to their feed- 
ing on Cods Heads, &c. which is their Principall Diett. The Great- 
est Distaste a Person has to this Place is the Stench of the Fish, the 
whole Air seems Tainted with it. It may in Short be Said its a 
Dirty Erregular Stincking Place. About Eleven Sett out from 
Marblehead and ab^ One Arived at Linn Dynd upon a Fine Mongrell 
Goose at M^. Wards, after Dinner Proceed^ on Our Journey Past 
trough Mistick which is a Small Town of abt a hundred Houses 
Pleasently Situated near to which is a Fine Country Seat belonging 
to Mr. Isaac Royall being One of the Grandest in N. America Arived 
at Charles Towne abt 7 a Clock and Crosed the Ferry at North End 
and Came to Mr. Jacob Wendells where Spent the Evening with 
Several Gentlemen. 



HUGH FINLAY IN 1773. 



H ugh Finlay was an Englishman who came to Canada in 1760 
where he established himself in business and became a 
Justice of the Peace and Legislative Councillor. When Benja- 
min Franklin came to Canada in 1772 to establish a postal service 
he placed it in Finlay’s hands and when Franklin was dismissed in 
1774 Finlay was made Deputy Postmaster General of the Northern 
District of North America. In 1775 he lived in ’’Holland House” 
which was occupied by Gen. Montgomery as his headquarters. After 
the Revolution he became Deputy Postmaster General for the British 
Colonies in North America and died in 1802. In 1773 and 1774 he 
made a tour of inspection along the Atlantic coast as far south as 
Georgia and the following account is abstracted from the Journal kept 
by Hugh Finlay, 1773-1774, Brooklyn, 1867. 

Left Portsmouth [Oct. 9, 1773] after dinner, and arrived at New- 
bury (22 miles), Bulkeley Emerson, Dep’y. On Sunday 10th did no 
business. 

Monday 11th. Examined the books, they were in form and up to 
this day : he has no office, but receives and delivers letters in his 
shop, he is a bookseller. He seems to be a stayed, sober man. Re- 
ceived the balance of the quarter ending the 5th. The Post from 
Boston arrives on Tuesdays at 6 o’clock in the evening. From Ports- 
mouth on the same day at one P. M. From Boston on Friday 6 
o’clock P. M. in summer. From Portsmouth on Friday between 4 
and 5 P. M. The mail for Boston is made up on Tuesday, one o’clock. 
For the Eastward at the same time. For Boston on Friday 4 o’clock 
P. M. For the Eastward at the same time, but theres seldom any letters 
either for East or West. The stages and private conveyances take 
it all. Left a copy of Mr Foxcrofts directions to me dated 16th Sept, 
to settle and receive balances from the Deputy Post masters. Mr. 
Emerson thinks that the want of Post-horns is a loss to the office, 
for by warning given by the horn many letters wou’d go by Post 
which are now sent by other oportunity’s — the Post shou’d blow be- 

(5) 



6 



HUGH FINLAY IN 1773. 



fore the hour of shutting, and in passing on his way many letters 
wou’d be deliver’d to him. He asks, whether, if the drivers of stages 
were to be paid a penny for every letter they bring to the office he 
might charge two pence for all such letters deliverable in town. The 
Rider who brings the mails to this office is punctual. The office here 
neither encreases nor diminishes, the rece’t is from £9 to £10 lawful, 
quarterly. 

Left Newbury and proceeded 12 miles to Ipswitch, James Foster, 
Dep’y. Gone to the country ; he keeps a small shop. Left directions 
for him in writing to send his accots. with the General Post office 
by next Post., directed for me at the Post Office in Boston, and also 
to send the balance of his account, and to inform mie of the days and 
hours of the arrival of mails at his office, and the times of the Post's 
departure from his office, with any proposals he may have to make 
for the good of the office — with his report of the riders employed. 
Proceeded 12 miles to Salem, Edward Norice, Dep’y. 

October 11th. His books were not in good order, he follows 
the form, but they are dirty and not brought up regularly ; he under- 
stands the business of a deputy. The office is kept in a small mean 
looking place. He teaches writing. He has no commission to act, 
he took charge of the office at the death of his father; he reports 
that every other day the stage coach goes for Boston, the drivers 
take many letters, so that but few are forwarded by Post to or from 
his office. If any information were lodged (but an inform^er wou’d 
get tar’d and feather’d) no jury wou’d find the fact ; it is deem’d 
necessary to hinder all acts of Parliament from taking effect in 
America. They are they say to be governed by laws of their own 
framing and no other. 

While Mr. Norrice was making up his accounts I went down the 
12th, four miles, to Marblehead, Woodward Abrahams, Deputy. He 
was from home : his wife informs me that he accounts to Mr. Hub- 
bard, Post Master in Boston, and the quarter ending the 5th July 
was settled and transmitted. Wrote a letter to Mr. Abrahams, as 
follows : 

"My business with you w^as to look into your office books, to re- 
ceive the quarters account ending the 5th of this month, and the 



HUGH FINLAY IN 1773. 



7 



balance due by you to the General Office, and to enquire if you 
have anything to propose for the good of the service, or any thing 
to represent needing amendment, but as I have miss’d of you, I pray 
you to transmit the accounts and balance to me at Mr. Hubbard’s 
in Boston by the first Post : and be so good as to inform me of any 
matter which you think a Surveyor shou’d be made acquainted with, 
whose business is to further the interest of the General Post Office, 
and facilitate correspondence by every possible means. I shou’d 
be glad to know particularly how the mails are forwarded, since 
John Noble cannot ride thro’ this place. I shall leave Salem for 
Boston to morrow morning, where I shall remain some days.” 

In passing thro’ the street in my way back to Salem, I met Mr. 
Abrahams on his return from the country : a few minutes before my 
letter was put into his hands, he promised to comply with my demands. 
He appears to be an intelligent man ; he has an employment in the 
Customs, and keeps the Post Office where he does the Custom House 
business. Noble, the rider, cannot go down to Marblehead at present. 
The small-pox is in Salem, and was he to go down with the mail he 
wou’d be oblig’d to undergo the ceremony of smoaking, that is, to 
be fumigated with brim-stone ; as he is of a weakly constitution he 
cannot submit to it, therefore he leaves the Marblehead bag to take 
its chance of a conveyance ; opportunitys happen once or twice a day, 
yet it sometimes lies for days at Salem — the people in Marblehead 
complain of this. It is Noble’s duty to send it down by a person 
sent on purpose, this rider is careful, sober and punctual ; he rides 
all the way to Portsmouth. 

On my return to Salem I settled with Mr. Norice, who would not 
swear to his accounts as he has no commission. The Post from 
Boston arrives at Salem on Tuesday 12 o’clock, and he is dispatch’d 
for the Eastward at 2 ; coming from Boston the rider goes first to 
Marblehead. He returns from the Eastward every Saturday morn- 
ing at 10 o’clock, and takes Marblehead on his way to Boston. Left 
Salem and proceeded 21 miles to Boston, (where I arrived the 13th), 
Tuthill Hubbard, Post Master. 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



F rancois jean Chastellux was born in Paris in 1734 and at an 
early age entered the army. In 1777, he was a Major-General 
under Rochambeau in the American army and afterwards 
travelled through the Middle States, to Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire in 1782. The following year he sailed from Philadelphia 
and returned to France where he died Oct. 28, 1788 in Paris. The 
following account of his journey through Essex County is abstracted 
from the English translation of his travels published under the follow- 
ing title : Travels in North America in the years 1 780, 1 781 and 1 782. 

By the Marquis de Chastellux, 2 vols., London, 1787. 

It was on the morning of the 8th [Oct. 1782] that I examined the 
field of battle at Concord, which took me up till half past ten, when 
I resumed my journey. Ten miles from Concord is Bellerika, a pretty 
considerable township ; the country here was less fertile, and the 
road rather stony. We halted at South Andover, five miles beyond 
Billerika, at a bad inn, kept by one Forster ; his wife had some 
beautiful children, but she appeared disordered, and I thought her 
rather drunk. She shewed me, with much importance, a book her 
eldest daughter was reading, and I found it, to my no small surprise, 
to be a book of prayers in Italian. This daughter, who was about 
seventeen, repeated also a prayer in the Indian language, of which 
she understood not a word, having learnt it accidentally from an 
Indian servant ; but her mother thought all this admirable. We 
contented ourselves with baiting our horses in this wretched alehouse, 
and set out at half past one, travelled through South and North An- 
dover. North-Parish, or. North Andover, is a charming place, where 
there are a great number of very handsome houses, a quantity of 
meadows, and fine cattle. Almost on quitting this long township, 
you enter Bradford, where night overtook us, and we travelled two 
or three miles in the dark before we reached Haverhill ferry. It was 
half past six before we had crossed it, and got to Mr. Harward’s inn, 
where we had a good supper, and good lodgings. At Haverhill, the 

(8) 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



9 



Merimack is only fit for vessels of thirty tons, but much larger ones 
are built here, which are fioated down empty to Newbury. Three 
miles above Haverhill are falls, and higher up the river is only navig- 
able for boats. The trade of this town formerly consisted in timber 
for ship-building, which has been suspended since the war. It is 
pretty considerable, and tolerably well built ; and its situation, in 
the form of an amphitheatre on the left shore of the Merimack, gives 
it many agreeable aspects. 

We left this place the 9th at nine in the morning, our road lying 
through Plastow, a pretty considerable township ; after which we 
met with woods, and a wild and horrid country. [The Marquis then 
passed through Kingston, Exeter and Greenland and reached Ports- 
mouth that evening.] . . . 

The road from Portsmouth to Newbury passes through a barren 
country. Hampton is the only township you meet with, and there 
are not such handsome houses there as at Greenland. As we had 
only twenty miles to go, I was unwilling to stop, and desired the 
Vicomte de Vaudreiul only, to go on a little before us to dinner. It 
was two o’clock when we reached Merimack ferry, and from the 
shore we saw the openings of the harbour, the channel of which 
passes near the northern extremity of Plumb Island, on which is a 
small fort, with a few cannon and mortars. Its situation appears to 
me well chosen, at least as far as I was capable of judging from a 
distance. At the entrance of the harbour is a bar, on which there 
are only eighteen feet water in the highest tides, so that although it 
be a very commercial place, it has always been respected by the 
English. 

Several frigates had been built here ; amongst others, the Charles- 
Town, and the Alliance. The harbour is extensive, and well sheltered. 
After passing the ferry in little flat boats, which held only five horses 
each, we went to Mr. Davenports’ inn,* where we found a good din- 
ner ready. 

I had letters from Mr. Wentworth to Mr. John Tracy, the most 
considerable merchant in the place ; but before I had time to send 
them, he had heard of my arrival, and, as I was arising from table, 

*Now the "Wolfe Tavern.” 



10 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



entered the room, and very politely invited me to pass the evening 
with him. He was accompanied by a Colonel, whose name is too 
difficult for me to write, having never been able to catch the manner 
of pronouncing it, but it was something like Wigsleps.* This 
Colonel remained with me till Mr. Tracy finished his business, when 
he came with two handsome carriages, well equipped, and conducted 
me and my Aide de Campe to his country-house. This house stands 
a mile from the town, in a very beautiful situation ; but of this I 
could myself form no judgment, as it was already night. I went 
however, by moonlight, to see the garden, which is composed of 
different terraces. 

There is likewise a hot-house and a number of young trees. The 
house is very handsome and well finished, and every thing breathes 
that air of magnificence accompanied with simplicity, which is only 
to be found amongst merchants. 

The evening passed rapidly by the aid of agreeable conversation 
and a few glasses of punch. The ladies we found assembled were 
Mrs. Tracy, her two sisters, and their cousin. Miss Lee. Mrs. Tracy 
has an agreeable and a sensible countenance, and her manners corres- 
pond with her appearance. At ten o’clock an excellent supper was 
served, we drank good wine. Miss Lee sung and prevailed on 
Messieurs de Vaudreiul and Taleyrand to sing also : towards midnight 
the ladies withdrew, but we continued drinking Maderia and Xary. 
Mr. Tracy, according to the custom of the country, offered us pipes 
which were accepted by M. de Taleyrand, t and M. de Montesquieu, 
the consequence of which was that they became intoxicated, and 
were led home, where they were happy to get to bed. 

As to myself, I remained perfectly cool, and continued to converse 
on trade and politics with Mr. Tracy, who interested me greatly with 
an account of all the vicissitudes of his fortune since the beginning 
of the war. At the end of 1777, his brother and he had lost one 
and forty ships, and with regard to himself, he had not a rayx)f hope 
but in a single letter of marque of eight guns, of which he had re- 
ceived no news. As he was walking one day with his brother, and 

*Col. Edward Wigglesworth. 

tCount Bozon de Perigord, alias de Talleyrand. 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



11 



they were reasoning together on the means of subsisting their fami- 
lies (for they were both married) they perceived a sail making for 
the harbour. He immediately interrupted the conversation, saying 
to his brother, "Perhaps it is a prize for me.” The latter laughed 
at him, but he immediately took a boat, went to meet the ship, and 
found that it was in fact a prize belonging to him, worth five and 
twenty thousand pounds sterling. Since that period, he has been 
almost always fortunate, and he is at present thought to be worth 
£120,000 sterling. He has my warmest wishes for his prosperity ; 
for he is a sensible, polite man, and a good patriot. He has always 
assisted his country in time of need, and in 1781 lent five thousand 
pounds to the State of Massachusetts for the clothing of their troops, 
and that only on the receipt of the Treasurer, yet his quota of taxes 
in that very year amounted to six thousand pounds. One can hardly 
conceive how a simple individual can be burthened so far ; but it 
must be understood, that besides the duty of 5 per cent, on imxport- 
ation, required by Congress, the State imposed another tax of the 
same value on the sale of every article, in the nature of an excise, 
on rum, sugar, coffee, &c. These taxes are levied with great rigour : 
a merchant who receives a vessel is obliged to declare the cargo, 
and nothing can go out of the ship or warehouse without paying the 
duty. The consequence of this restraint is, that the merchants, in 
order to obtain free use of their property, are obliged themselves to 
turn retailers, and pay the whole duty, the value of which they must 
recover from those to whom they sell. Without this, they could 
neither draw from their stores, what is necessary for their own con- 
sumption, nor the small articles, which they are in the way of selling, 
at the first hand ; they are consequently obliged to take out licences, 
like tavern-keepers and retailers, thus supporting the whole weight 
of the impost both as merchants and as shop-keepers. Patriot as he 
is, Mr. Tracy cannot help blaming the rigour with which commerce 
is treated ; a rigour arising from the preponderance of the farmers 
and landholders, and also from the necessity which the government 
is under of finding money where it can ; for the farmers easily evade 
the taxes ; certificates, receipts, alledged grievances, reduce them al- 
most to nothing. Thus has a State, yet in its infancy, all the infirm- 



12 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



ities of age, and taxation attaches itself to the very source of wealth, 
at the risk of drying up its channels. [This observation appears 
rather forced, as applied generally, the Marquis admitting that these 
impositions were the result of a critical and immediate want. Trans- 
lator.] 

I left Newbury Port, the 13th at ten in the morning, and often 
stopped before I lost sight of this pretty little towm, for I had great 
pleasure in enjoying the different aspects it presents. It is in general 
well built, and is daily increasing in new buildings. The warehouses 
of the merchants, which are near their own houses, serve by way of 
ornament, and in point of architecture resem.ble not a little our large 
green-houses. You cannot see the ocean from the road to Ipswich ; 
and the country to the eastward is dry and rocky. Toward the west 
it is more fertile ; but in general the land throughout the country, 
bordering on the sea, is not fruitful. At the end of twelve miles is 
Ipswich, where we stopped to bait our horses, and were surprised to 
find a town between Newbury and Salem, at least as populous as 
these two sea-ports, though indeed much less opulent. 

But mounting an eminence near the tavern, I saw that Ipswich 
was also a sea-port. I was told however that the entrance was diffi- 
cult, and at some times of the year there were not five feet upon the 
bar. From this eminence you see Cape Anne, and the south side of 
Plumb island, as well as a part of the north. The bearing of the coast, 
which trends to the eastward, seems to me badly laid down in the 
charts ; this coast trends more southerly above Ipswich, and forms a 
sort of bay. 

Ipswich at present has but little trade, and its fishery is also on the 
decline ; but the ground in the neighborhood is pretty good, and 
abounds in pasturage, so that the seamen having turned farmers, 
they have been in no want of subsistence, which may account like- 
wise for the very considerable population of this place where you 
meet with upwards of two hundred houses, in about two miles square. 

Before you arrive at Salem, is a handsom.e rising town called 
Beverley. This is a new establishment produced by commerce, on 
the left shore of the creek which bathes the town of Salem on the 
north side. One cannot but be astonished to see beautiful houses. 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



13 



large warehouses, &c. springing up in great numbers, at so small a 
distance from a commercial town, the prosperity of which is not 
diminished by it. The rain overtook us just as we were passing near 
the lake which is three miles from Beverley. We crossed the creek 
in two flat-bottomed boats, containing each six horses. It is near a 
mile wide ; and in crossing, we could very plainly distinguish the 
opening of the harbour, and a castle situated on the extremity of the 
neck, which defends the entrance. This neck is a tongue of land 
running to the eastward and connected with Salem only by a very 
narrow sort of causeway. On the other side of the neck, and of the 
causeway, is the creek that forms the true port of Salem, which has 
no other defence than the extreme difficulty of entering without a good 
practical pilot. The view of these two ports, which are confounded 
together to the sight ; that of the town of Salem, which is embraced 
by two creeks, or rather arms of the sea, the ships and edifices which 
appear intermingled, form a very beautiful picture, which I regret 
not having seen at a better season of the year. As I had no letters 
for any inhabitants of Salem, I alighted at Goodhue’s tavern,* now 
kept by Mr. Robinson, which I found very good, and was soon served 
with an excellent supper. In this inn was a sort of club of merchants, 
two or three of whom came to visit me ; and amongst others, Mr. de 
la Fille, a merchant of Bordeaux, who had been established five years 
at Boston ; he appeared a sensible man, and pretty well informed 
respecting the commerce of the country, the language of which he 
speaks well. 

The 14th in the morning, Mr. de la Fille called upon me to conduct 
me to see the port and some of the warehouses. I found the harbour 
commodious for commerce, as vessels may unload and take in their 
lading at the quays ; there were about twenty in the port, several of 
which were ready to sail, and others which had just arrived. In 
general, this place has a rich and animated appearance. At my re- 
turn to the inn I found several merchants who came to testify their 
regret at not having been appraized more early of my arrival, and 
at not having it in their power to do the honours of the town. 

♦The "Sun Tavern,” located in Essex Street, a short distance east of St. Peter 
Street. 



14 



MARQUIS DE CHASTELLUX IN 1782. 



At eleven, I got on horseback, and taking the road to Boston, was 
surprised to see the town, or suburb of Salem, extending near a mile 
in length to the westward. On the whole it is difficult to conceive 
the state of increase, and the prosperity of this country, after so long 
and so calamitous a war. The road from Salem to Boston passes 
through an arid and rocky country, always within three or four 
miles of the sea, without having a sight of it ; at length, however, 
after passing Lynn, and Lynn Creek, you get a view of it, and find 
yourself in a bay formed by NahanCs Point, and Pulling’s Point. I 
got upon the rocks to the right of the roads, in order to embrace 
more of the country, and form a better judgment. 

I could distinguish not only the whole bay, but several of the is- 
lands in Boston road, and part of the peninsular of Nantasket, near 
which I discovered the masts of our ships of war. From hence to 
Winisimmet ferry, you travel over disagreeable roads, sometimes at 
the foot of rocks, at others across salt marshes. It is just eighteen 
miles from Salem to the ferry, where we embarked in a large scow, 
containing twenty horses ; and the wind, which was rather contrary, 
becoming more so, we made seven tacks, and were near an hour in 
passing. The landing is to the northward of the port, and to the 
east of Charles-Town ferry. 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 




iHE second President of the United States, when a young man 



and a practicing lawyer, frequently had occasion to visit Essex 



^ County in connection with the sessions of the Courts. He al» 
so had a brother-in-law living in Salem — Richard Cranch, a watch- 
maker, whose son William, became a Justice of the United States 
Supreme Court. John Adams makes no mention in his diary of a 
murder trial held in the old court house at Salem in 1769 in which 
he appeared for the defendant. The case was unusual in that at a 
preliminary hearing the medieval ’’ordeal of touch” was invoked to 
support the claims of the accusers. There was a similar instance at 
Woburn a few years earlier. The following extracts are taken from 
his diary as printed in Volume II of The Works of John Adams, 
Boston, 1850. 

August 12, 1766. Tuesday. Set out with my wife for Salem; 
dined at Boston ; drank tea at Dr. Simon Tuft’s at Medford ; lodged 
at Mr. Bishop’s. 

Aug. 13. Wednesday. Set out from Mr. Bishop’s, oated at Nor- 
wood’s, alias Martin’s, and reached brother Cranch’s* at twelve 
o’clock ; dined and drank tea, and then rode down to the Neck Gate, 
and then back through the Common and down to Beverly Ferry, then 
back through the Common and round the back part of the town 
home ; then walked round the other side of the town to Colonel 
Browne’s, who not being at home we returned. 

The town is situated on a plain, a level, a flat ; scarce an emin - 
ence can be found anywhere to take a view. The streets are broad 
and straight, and pretty clean. The houses are the most elegant 
and grand that I have seen in any of the maritime towns. 

Aug. 14. Thursday. In the morning rode a single horse, in com- 
pany with Mrs. Cranch and Mrs. Adams in a chaise to Marblehead. 
The road from Salem to Marblehead, four miles, is pleasant indeed. 
The grass plats and fields are delightful, but Marblehead differs from 

*Richard Cranch, who had married a sister of John Adams’ wife. 



( 15 ) 



16 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



Salem. The streets are narrow, and rugged, and dirty, but there are 
some very grand buildings. 

Returned and dined at Cranch’s ; after dinner walked to Witchcraft 
hill, a hill about half a mile from Cranch’s, where the famous persons 
formerly executed for witches were buried. Somebody within a few 
years has planted a number of locust trees over the graves, as a 
memorial of that memorable victory over the '’prince of the power 
of the air.” This hill is in a large common belonging to the proprie- 
tors of Salem, &c. From it you have a fair view of the town, of the 
river, the north and south fields, of Marblehead, of Judge Lynde’s 
pleasure house, &c., of Salem village, &c. 

November 3, 1766. Monday. Set off with my wife for Salem ; 
stopped half an hour at Boston, crossed the ferry, and at three o’clock 
arrived at Hill’s, the tavern in Malden, the sign of the Rising Eagle, 
at the brook near Mr. Emerson’s meeting-house, five miles from 
Norwood’s ; where, namely, at Hill’s, we dined. Here we fell in 
company with Kent and Sewall. We all oated at Martin’s, where 
we found the new sheriff of Essex, Colonel Saltonstall. We all rode 
into town together. Arrived at my dear brother Cranch’s about 
eight, and drank tea, and are all very happy. Sat and heard the 
ladies talk about ribbon, catgut, and Paris net, riding-hoods, cloth, 
silk, and lace. Brother Cranch came home, and a very happy even- 
ing we had. Cranch is now in a good situation for business, near 
the court-house and Mr. Barnard’s meeting house, and on the road 
to Marblehead ; his house fronting the wharves, the harbor and ship- 
ping, has a fine prospect before it. 

Nov. 4. Tuesday. A fine morning. Attended court all day ; 
heard the charge to the jury, and a prayer by Mr. Barnard. Deacon 
Pickering was foreman of one of the juries. This man, famous for 
his writing in newspapers concerning church order and government 
they tell me is very rich ; his appearance is perfectly plain, like a 
farmer; his smooth combed locks flow behind him like Deacon 

Cushings,’ though not so gray ; has a quick eye like ; he has an 

hypocritical demure on his face like Deacon Foster ; his mouth makes 
a semicircle when he puts on that devout face. Deacon Penniman 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766^1774. 



17 



is somewhat like him, though Penniman has more of the grave so- 
lemnity in his behavior than the other. The picture of Governor 
Endicott, &c. in the council chamber, is of this sort ; they are puri- 
tanical faces. 

At this court I also saw a young gentleman lately sworn in the 
inferior court, whose name is Samuel Porter he lived with Mr. 
Farnham, took his second degree last year, and lives at Ipswich. 
Thus every county of the Province swarms with pupils, and students, 
and young practitioners of law. 

Nov. 5. Wednesday. Attended court ; heard the trial of an action 
of trespass, brought by a mulatto woman, for damages, for restrain- 
ing her of her liberty. This is called suing for liberty ; the first ac- 
tion that ever I knew of the sort, though I have heard there have 
been many. Heard another action for assault and battery, of a 
mariner, by the master of a vessel ; a little fellow was produced as 
a witness who is a Spaniard ; speaks intelligible English ; black eyes, 
thin sharp features ; has been among the English three or four years. 
Here I saw Nathaniel Peaslee Sargent, of Methuen, t two years an 
attorney of superior court, now commencing a barrister. He took 
his degree the year I entered college ; he has the character of sense, 
ingenuity, &c., but not of fluency; he is a stout man, not genteel 
nor sprightly. This is the gentleman whom Thacher recommended 
for a justice, and admired for his correctness and conciseness, as an- 
other Father Read. Here I found the famous Joseph Eaton, at law 
as usual. I knew him when I lived at Worcester, where he had a 
suit, I believe, every court while I lived there. He now lives at Lynn 
End, on the borders between Essex and Middlesex. This is one of the 
stirring instruments that Goffe has patronized and encouraged for 
many years. I remember to have heard Goffe celebrate him for self- 
government, for a cool, steady command of his passions, and for firm- 
ness of mind, &c. Eaton is now at law with the Harts, whose char- 
acters are as curious as his and more so. This Eaton, Goffe set up, as 

*Afterwards of Salem and a Loyalist who died in London in 1798. It is said 
that he indicated to Lieut-Colonel Leslie, which street he should take on reaching 
Salem, Feb. 26, 1775, while on the way to the North Bridge. 

t Afterwards Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. He died 
in 1791. 



18 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



Pynchon tells me, to be a justice, but Thacher got him indicted in the 
county of Essex for a barrator, which defeated the scheme of Goffe, and 
he came near conviction. Goffe grew warm, and said that Eaton’s 
character was as good as any man’s at the bar. Spent the evening 
at Mr. Pynchons, with Farnham, Sewall, Sargent, Colonel Saltonstall, 
&c. very agreeably. Punch, wine, bread and cheese, apples, pipes 
and tobacco. Popes and bonfires* this evening at Salem, and a 
swarm of tumultuous people attending them. 

Nov. 6. Thursday. A fine morning ; oated at Martin’s, where we 
saw five boxes of dollars, containing, as we were told, about eighteen 
thousand of them, going in a horse-cart from Salem custom-house to 
Boston, in order to be shipped for England. A guard of armed men, 
with swords, hangers, pistols, and muskets, attended it. We dined 
at Dr. Tuft’s in Medford. 

June 29, 1770. Began my journey to Falmouth in Casco Bay, 
Baited my horse at Martin’s in Lynn, where I saw T. Fletcher and 
his wife, &c. Dined at Goodhue’s, in Salem, where I fell in company 
with a stranger, his name I knew not; he made a genteel appear- 
ance, was in a chair himself with a negro servant ; seemed to have 
a general knowledge of American affairs ; said he had been a mer- 
chant in London ; had been at Maryland, Philadelphia, New York, 
&c. One year more, he said, would make Americans as quiet as 
lambs ; they could not do without Great Britain, they could not con- 
quer their luxury, &c ; Oated my horse, and drank balm tea at 
Treadwell’s in Ipswich, where I found Brother Porter, and chatted 
with him half an hour, then rode to Rowley, and lodged at Captain 
Jewett’s. Jewett 'Tad rather the House should sit all the year round, 
than give up an atom of right or privilege. The Governor can’t 
frighten the people with, &c.” 

June 30. Saturday. Arose not very early, and drank a pint of 
new milk, and set off; oated my horse at Newbury, rode to Clark’s, 
at Greenland meeting-house, where I gave him hay and oats, and 
then set off for Newington ; turned in at a gate by Colonel March’s, 
and passed through two gates more before I came into the road that 

*Pope’s Night — the celebration of the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot. 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



19 



carried me to my uncle’s.* I found the old gentleman, in his eighty- 
second year, as hearty and alert as ever, his son and daughter well, 
their children grown up, and every thing strange to me. I find I 
had forgot the place ; it is seventeen years, I presume, since I was 
there. My reception was friendly, cordial, and hospitable, as I could 
wish ; took a cheerful, agreeable dinner, and then set off for York 
over Bloody Point Ferry, a way I never went before, and arrived at 
Woodbridge’s half a hour after sunset. 

I forgot yesterday to mention, that I had stopped and inquired the 
name of a pond in Wenham, which I found was Wenham Pond, and 
also the name of a remarkable little hill at the mouth of the pond, 
which resembles a high loaf of our country brown bread, and found 
that it is called Peters’ Hill to this day from the famous Hugh Peters, 
who about the year 1640 or before preached from the top of that 
hillock to the people who congregated round the sides of it without 
any shelter for the hearers, before any buildings were erected for 
public worship. 

June 17, 1771. Monday. Set out upon the eastern circuit. Stopped 
at Boston, at my office, and nowhere else. Came over Charles- 
town ferry and Penny ferry, and dined at Kettel’s, in Malden, by the 
meeting-house. Kettel is a deputy sheriff ; the meeting-house is Mr. J. 
Thatcher’s. I mounted my horse and rode to Boston, in a cloth coat 
and waistcoat, but was much pinched with a cold, raw, harsh, north- 
east wind. At Boston, I put on a thick flannel shirt, and that made 
me comfortable, and no more ; so cold am I, or so cold is the weather, 
— 17th June. Overtook Judge Cushing in his old curricle and two 
lean horses, and Dick, his negro, at his right hand, driving the cur- 
ricle. This is the way of travelling in 1771 ; — a judge of the circuits, 
a judge of the superior court, a judge of the King’s bench, common 
pleas, and exchequer for the Province, travels with a pair of wretched 
old jades of horses in a wretched old dung-cart of a curricle, and a 
negro on the same seat with him driving. But we shall have more 
glorious times anon, when the sterling salaries are ordered out of the 

*Rev. Joseph Adams, minister of that town. He had been a great admirer of 
Doctor Mather and was said to affect an imitation of his voice, pronunciation, 
and manner in the pulpit. 



20 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



revenue, to the judges, &c. as many most ardently wish, and the 
judges themselves, among the rest, I suppose. Stopped at Martin’s 
in Lynn, with Judge Cushing ; oated and drank a glass of wine, and 
heard him sigh and groan the sighs and groans of seventy-seven, 
though he kept active. He conversed in his usual, hinting, insinuat- 
ing, doubting, scrupling strain. 

Rode with King, a deputy sheriff, who came out to meet the judges, 
into Salem ; put up at Goodhue’s. The negro that took my horse 
soon began to open his heart ; — he did not like the people of Salem ; 
wanted to be sold to Captain John Dean, of Boston ; he earned two 
dollars in a forenoon, and did all he could to give satisfaction, but 
his mistress was cross, and said he did not earn salt to his porridge, 
&c. and would not find him clothes, &c. Thus I find discontents in 
all men ; — the black thinks his merit rewarded with ingratitude, and 
so does the white ; the black estimates his owm worth and the merit 
of his services higher than anybody else, so does the white. This 
flattering, fond opinion of himself, is found in every man. I have 
hurt myself today, by taking cold in the forenoon, and by drinking 
to much wine at Kettel’s, and at Martins. I drank half a pint at 
Kettel’s, and two glasses at Martin’s. 

Just after I had drank tea and got my fire made in my chamber, 
my old neighbor, Jo, Barrell, came and lodged at Goodhue’s in the 
same chamber with me. His grief is intense indeed. He spent the 
whole evening and a long time after we got to bed, in lamenting the 
loss of his wife, in enumerating her excellencies, &c. ; heartily wishes 
himself with her ; would have been very glad to have gone with her. 
He married from pure regard, utterly against the will of his mother 
and all his friends, because she was poor ; but she made him happy. 
She was the best of women ; the world has lost all its charms to him. 
She beckoned to me but a few minutes before she died, when her 
hands were as cold as clods. She whispered to me, '1 love you now ; 
if I could but carry you and the children with me, I should go re- 
joicing.” In this eloquent strain of grief did he run on. Millions of 
thoughts did this conversation occasion me. I thought I should have 
had no sleep all night ; however, I got to sleep and slept well. 

June 18. Tuesday. Rode with Mr. Barrell to Ipswich, and put 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



21 



up at Treadwell’s. Every object recalls the subject of grief. Barrell, 
all the way to Ipswich, was like the turtle bemoaning the loss of his 
mate. 'Tine season and beautiful scenes, but they did not charm 
him as they used to. He had often rode this way a courting with 
infinite pleasure,” &c. "I can’t realize that she has left me forever. 
When she was well, I often thought I could realize the loss of her, 
but I was mistaken ; I had no idea of it.” In short, this man’s mourn- 
ings have melted and softened me beyond measure. 

June 22. Saturday. Spent this week at Ipswich, in the usual 
labors and drudgery of attendance upon court. Boarded at Tread- 
well’s ; have had no time to write. Landlord and landlady are some 
of the grandest people alive ; landlady is the great grand-daughter 
of Governor Endicott, and has all the great notions of high family 
that you find in Winslows, Hutchinsons, Quincys, Saltonstalls, Chand- 
lers, Leonards, Otises, and as you might find with more propriety in 
the Winthrops. Yet she is cautious and modest about discovering 
it. She is a new light ; continually canting and whining in a religious 
strain. The Governor was uncommonly strict and devout, eminently 
so in his day ; and his great, great grand-daughter hopes to keep up 
the honor of the family in hers, and distinguish herself among her 
contemporaries as much. 

"Terrible things sin causes,” sighs and groans, "the pangs of the 
new birth. The death of Christ shows above all things the heinous 
nature of sin! How awfully Mr. Kent talks about death! How 
lightly and carelessly ! I am sure a man of his years, who can talk 
so about death, must be brought to feel the pangs of the new birth 
here, or made to repent of it forever. How dreadful it seems to me 
to hear him, I that am so afraid of death, and so concerned lest I 
an’t fit and prepared for it ! What a dreadful thing it was that Mr. 
Gridley died so ! — too great, too big, too proud to learn any thing ; 
would not let any minister pray with him ; said he knew more than they 
could tell him ; asked the news, and said he was going where he 
should hear no news,” &c. 

Thus far, landlady. As to landlord, he is as happy, and as big, as 
proud, as conceited as any nobleman in England ; always calm and 
good-natured and lazy ; but the contemplation of his farm and his 



22 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



sons and his house and pasture and cows, his sound judgment, as he 
thinks, and his great holiness, as well as that of his wife, keep him 
as erect in his thoughts as a noble or a prince. Indeed, the more I 
consider of mankind, the more I see that every mian seriously ard in 
his conscience believes himself the wisest, brightest, best, happiest, 
&c. of all mankind. . . . 

June 23. Sunday. In the morning my horse was gone. Went to 
meeting all day, and heard old Mr. Rogers, a good well-m.eaning 
man, I believe. After meeting rode to Newbury and visited Brother 
Lowell, Brother Farnham, and then went and supped with Mr. Jon- 
athan Jackson in company with Captain Tracy, Mr. Hooper, Mr. 
Williams, Mr. Frazier, and Brother Lowell ; then went and lodged 
with Lowell. 

Nov. 9, 1771. Saturday. At Salem all this week, at court. Dined 
one day at Chief Justice Lynde’s, all the rest of the week till this day 
with the court. Dined this day, spent the afternoon, and drank tea, 
at Judge Ropes’s, with Judges Lynde, Oliver and Hutchinson, Sewall 
Putnam and Winthrop. Mrs. Ropes is a fine woman, very pretty 
and genteel. Our Judge Oliver is the best bred gentleman of all 
the judges by far ; there is something in every one of the others in- 
decent and disagreeable at times in company — affected witticisms, 
unpolished fleers, coarse jests, and sometimes, rough, rude attacks ; 
— but these you don’t see escape Judge Oliver. Drank tea at Judge 
Ropes’, spent the evening at Colonel Pickmans. He is very spright- 
ly, sensible, and entertaining, talks a great deal, tells old stories in 
abundance about the witchcraft, paper money, Governor Belcher’s 
administration, &c. 

Nov. 10. Sunday. Heard Mr. Cutler of Ipswich Hamlet ; dined 
at Dr. Putnam’s, with Colonel Putnam and lady, and two young 

gentlemen, nephews of the Doctor, and Colonel , and a Mrs. 

Scollay. 

Mar. 28. 1774. Monday. Rode with brother Josiah Quincy to 
Ipswich Court. Arrived at Piemont’s, in Danvers, in good order and 
well conditioned. Spent the evening, and lodged agreeably. Walked 



JOHN ADAMS IN 1766-1774. 



23 



out in the morning to hear the birds sing. Piemont* says there is a 
report that the Sons of Liberty have received some advices from 
England, which makes them look down ; that they have received a 
letter from Mr. Bollan, that they must submit ; and others letters 
which they kept secret. 

Mar. 29. Tuesday. Rode to Ipswich, and put up at the old place, 
Treadwell’s. The old lady has got a new copy of her great grand- 
father Governor Endicott’s picture hung up in the house. 

The old gentleman is afraid they will repeal the excise upon tea, 
and then that we shall have it plenty ; wishes they would double the 
duty, and then we should never have any more. The question is, 
Who is to succeed Judge Ropes ?t Whether Brown, or Pynchon, or 
Lee, or Hatch ? The bar here are explicit against the two last as 
unfit. Lowell says Pynchon would take it, because he wants to 
make way for Wetmore, who is about marrying his daughter. Pyn- 
chon says Judge Ropes was exceedingly agitated, all the time of his 
last sickness, about the public affairs in general, and those of the 
superior court in particular ; afraid his renunciation would be at- 
tributed to timidity ; afraid to refuse to renounce ; worried about 
the opinion of the bar, &c. Mr. Farnham is exceedingly mollified ; 
is grown quite modest and polite, in comparison with what he used 
to be, in politics. Lowell is so, too ; seems inclined to be admitted 
among the liberty men. 

*He came to Danvers from Boston and in 1784 was keeping a tavern in Ipswich. 
In 1775 he was accused of being a tory but his good character was certified by 
citizens of Danvers. 

t Judge Nathaniel Ropes, Judge of the Superior Court, a firm loyalist, who lived 
in Salem. He died of small pox and while lying near to death his house was at- 
tacked by a mob and many windows were broken and the premises defaced. 



SIMEON BALDWIN IN 1784. 



W HILE a tutor at Yale College, Simeon Baldwin made a tour 
of the New England coast towns during which he kept a 
diary preserving some account of his observations. He was 
a Member of Congress in 1803-1805, the next year becoming Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. In 1826 he was Mayor of New 
Haven. His dairy and other papers have been published by Gov. 
Simeon E. Baldwin under the following title* — Life and Letters of 
Simeon Baldwin, New Haven [1919.] 

Oct. 7, 1784. . . . Waited on the President,* gave him my 

Letter from Mr Clark — took some from him to Portsmouth — & tar- 
ried but a few minutes, took our leave of the Circle — & dined among 
the rocks & shoemaker shops of Lyn* — went into one of the shops (of 
which there are 150) to see ye manufactory — were informed that 
Medford or Mystic, a pretty Town a little back was equally famous 
for a manufactory of brick — much of their common wall was made 
of them. After dinner & paying extravagantly for it we travelled 
thro’ several little settlements tho’ little good Land, till we came to 
Marblehead a town of about 4 or 500 houses on the sure foundation 
of a rock— they are famous for the curing of Cod. The people are 
savage in their nature & education — are very poor in general — amaz- 
ingly prolific & exceed all places in the habit of begging, one can 
hardly ride thro’ the Town without being accosted in that way by 
one half of the old women & children in it. We viewed the crates 
got what information we could & rode round to Salem — put our 
horses & lodged at Col Bacons, after delivering our Letters & 
suping with Mr [Henry] Gibbs — he is a very kind hospitable man : 
says not a great deal, but appears clever — Mrs Gibs answers the 
same description. She does not half so much resemble the Prescot 
family, at N Haven as her sister Goodoo,t she was present — I gave 
her the Letter & drank to her as Mrs Gibs, the mistake turned the 

*Rev. Joseph Willard, D. D. President of Harvard College. 
tThe wife of Stephen Goodhue. 



(24) 



SIMEON BALDWIN IN 1784. 



25 



Laugh on me &c — Friday, Oct. 8. Took my morning walk as usual 
to see the place — found the streets a little irregular but the buildings 
many of them very good, & the number, but a little short of those in 
Newport — business was lively & good deal done there — took breakfast 
at Mr Gibs — delivered a Letter to Miss Peggy McKey a plain, good girl 
— & another introductory to Mr Whetmore a Lawyer — promised to 
call on him again. Left the Town in company with Mr Law — soon 
pass’d the ferry to Beverly a place far exceeding my expectation ; 
in short I never had a just idea of the population of this country — 
every three or 4 miles a meeting-house would present itself — we 
dined at Mr. Dana’s a very good minister of Ipswich, the Rev’d Mr 
Frysby came there to see us, and we must call on both on our return 
— our next stop was for a few minutes at Mr Bradfords & then a 
variety of merry chit-chat & friendly Disputes interspersed the variety 
of Landscips in our rapid progress to Newbury & port, where we 
slept after delivering a Letter to a very pretty Miss Parsons, with 
whom & her papa we spent most of ye Evening — Mr King to whom 
we had Letters was absent — we returned to the Tavern without 
much new acquaintance. 

Saturday, Oct. 9. Breakfasted soon after rising — had an invita* 
tion soon after to breakfast with Mr [Samuel] Spring the clergyman 
— I went to his house but on my way was introduced to Mr Mycall 
the printer — went into his book store — found a very good collection 
of 5 or 6 hundred Vollumns — took half a second breakfast at Mr 
Springs. Found him & his wife both very agreeable — engaged to 
dine with them on Monday — took leave & rode to Almsbury — call’d 
on a Mr Bell, who was to be setled there the next week — could not 
get away ’till after diner — was entertained with great exuberance 
of his oddities — found fine road thro [Hampton] to our last stage at 
Portsmouth. 

Monday, Oct. 11, 1784. After viewing the greater part of the 
Town in company with young Mr Langdon — we took breakfast at 
Esq. Hale’s & about 9 o’clock were on our horses for Salem — Ports- 
mouth is a Town of about 700 Houses not equal to Salem — is pretty 



26 



SIMEON BALDWIN IN 1784. 



well laid out in squares — the Harbour exceeding good — their wealth 
is in the lumber trade — with share in the fishery. We made but few 
stages, & nothing particular in the soil or prospect was inviting — till 
we came to Newbury port ; this is a place of great Trade, particularly 
in fish, vessels & Lumber — the Town is pretty regular, perhaps in- 
cluding Newbury about 600 Houses — we dined at Mr. Springs, was 
exceedingly pleased in the acquisition of having him & his wife 
among the Circle of my acquaintance — took letters from Miss Hannah 
Parsons & the charge of a performance of her Papa’s — in which I 
had a specimen of a man riding his Hobby — Mr Frysby was not at 
home & we excused ourselves without tarrying at Mr Dana’s. Were 
so belated in the Hamlet of Ipswich that we put up for the night — 
although we depended on arriving at Salem — Mr Cutler* was so 
busy in some unavoidable matters that we could not spend time with 
him till the next morning when we breakfasted with him. He gave 
us a variety of entertainment, particularly an account of his tour to 
the White Mountains. He accompanied us to Beverly and took leave 
with much politeness. 

Tuesday, Oct. 12. Cross’d the ferry about 11 o’clock. Mr Whet- 
more was out of Town. Mr Hopkins to whom by his previous desire 
we introduced ourselves invited us to dine. We paid our respects & 
deliver’d our Letter to Mr Bentley & except his importunity (in which 
he succeeded) to make us tarry, I have not found a more agreeable 
acquaintance. After calling on Mr. Gibs & making my excuses for 
not being there the last night, I took their & Miss MacKey’s Letters 
& mounted for Cambridge about 4 o’clock. Night overtook us & we 
lost our Road but were in College in about 3 & 1/2 hours, 

*Rev. Manasseh Cutler. 



LUIGI CASTIGLIONI IN 1785. 



B iographical information in relation to this Italian visitor 
is lacking in all the dictionaries. He arrived at Boston in 1785 
and after visiting the Province of Maine journeyed through New 
Hampshire, Vermont, New York and into the Southern States. He 
gave special attention to the botanical novelties of the country and 
viewed it with the keen eyes of a naturalist rather than those of a 
political observer. His notes upon manners and customs are varied 
and of unusual interest. A long chapter is devoted to the Penobscot 
Indians. A New England salt fish dinner, with shell barks and cider, 
he found most indigestible. His travels were published in two vol- 
umes under the following title : Viaggio negli Stati Uniti dell America 

Settentrionale fatto negli 1 785, 1 786, e 1 787, Milano, 1 792. The fol- 
lowing English translation of the portion relating to Essex County 
has been made by George Andrews Moriarty, Esq., of Boston. The 
first volume also was published in a German translation in 1793 at 
Mommingen. 

Although, upon my return to Boston I should have left at once to 
make my trip in the Eastern section of Massachusetts, the agreeable 
society of Boston and their kindly insistance detained me some days 
in that city, and I finally left on June 22 [1785] for Salem. The road 
thither is very beautiful and in some places very wide. I passed 
through Medford, a charming little village near Charlestown, and 
through Lynn another village which, situated at the foot of a hill 
covered with red cedars, enjoys a view over a little bay that lies in 
front of it and of the sinuous course of the Lynn river which here 
empties into the sea. Salem, the capital of Essex County, one of the 
oldest towns of Massachusetts, is situated near the sea, and has a 
harbor into which only small ships can enter. The houses are for 
the most part constructed of wood and are of good appearance and 
there are some made of brick. The churches are chiefly Presbyter- 
ian with an Anglican church and a Quaker meeting. The town is 

( 27 ) 



28 



LUIGI CASTIGLIONI IN 1785. 



said to have a population of eight thousand people, which gives it 
the right to send four representatives to the State Legislature. Its 
principal trade is in dried cod, of which they export annually 20 or 
30 thousand casks.* This fish which as I have before observ^ed is 
found most abundantly on the Newfoundland banks is prepared 
when taken in the following manner. As soon as a fish is caught it 
is split lengthwise and is immediately placed in different piles in the 
ship, after each layer of fish has been carefully covered with a 
layer of salt. They are left in this way until the ship arrives at 
Salem when they remove the fish from the piles, wash them in sea 
water, and then expose them for eight consecutive days to the sun 
upon a scaffolding made for such purpose, taking care to turn them 
each day so that they may be equally dried in all parts and taking them 
in at night. After eight days they pile them up again in the house 
leaving them there about one month after which they once more ex- 
pose them to the sun to thoroughly dry them. When entirely cured 
they are placed in casks, in which they compress them with a presser, 
and then put them on board ship. The best fish are taken in the 
Autumn or Spring while those taken in the Summer are of a very 
inferior quality. They are then carried to the Antilles where they 
are used to feed the negroes. 

On leaving Salem I passed over a small area of the sea that divides 
Salem from Beverly and arrived at Ipswich Hamlet where I passed the 
night with Mr. Cutler, minister of the Presbyterian church. In his 
leisure hours he devotes himself to the study of botany in w^hich he 
has made rapid progress in a short time. I cannot express the 
pleasure I had in finding in America a person who occupied himself 
with so much intelligence in the humane study of natural history 
and the following morning we made a short trip on foot into the 
country where we gathered various curious plants that I had not 
previously observed. 

On this occasion we saw various squirrels that are very common 
all over Massachusetts, and of which there are three different species. 
The largest is the gray squirrel which is sometimes as large as a cat. 

*In the last year (1784) they exported 28,000 casks. Each cask weighs 112 
English pounds. 



LUIGI CASTIGLIONI IN 1785. 



29 



They do great damage to the fields of Indian corn when the ears 
open and they eat the sweet and tender grains. Accordingly in some 
places the inhabitants are obliged to hunt them every four years and 
to carry the head to a chosen person* and in others they pay from 
the public treasury two pence for every squirrel killed. They kill 
these in the trees with shot guns, or take them with snares and traps 
and easily domesticate them keeping them in the houses bound with 
a light chain as pets for the children. They also eat the meat which 
is fat and of a delicate flavor, and the skins are sold at a low price. 

Much smaller than the preceeding is the chipmunk, that is not 
larger than a rat. This is called in English the striped squirrel be- 
cause it has two large white stripes running along its back. These 
are very abundant in the United States and one sees them scurrying 
rapidly away to the rocks that form their shelter. Their skins are 
much esteemed for the beautiful contrast that the two white stripes 
make with the dark tobacco color of the rest of their bodies and they 
are used to make mantles and tippets for ladies just as they use 
rarer furs. The flying squirrel is as common in America as in North- 
ern Europe and is smaller than the chip-munk and has the power of 
sustaining itself in the air in leaping from one tree to another by 
means of a skin that stretches from its front to its hind legs. A 
female was given to me in Boston by Doctor Clarke one inch from 
its nose to the commencement of its tail, which was four inches long, 
flat with round figure, and extending about an inch in width. The 
skin of the back was in color a gray brown, and that of the stomach 
white and the skin that extended from both sides of the body, and 
scarcely discernable when the animal stands still, was furnished with 
still longer fur. This squirrel is also easily domesticated and their 
skins are common and of small value. 

From Ipswich to Newbury-Port their are fifteen miles of very 
beautiful road running through pleasant country with cultivated 
fields. Newbury-Port is quite a large town situated in a valley of 
the Merrimack river three miles above the point where it empties into 

*In 1741 the General Court passed an Act to prevent damage to Indian corn 
and other grain. Selectmen were to allow four pence for each squirrel’s head, six 
pence for crows and three shillings a dozen for blackbirds. They were directed 
to cut off the ears of the squirrels and the beaks of the birds. 



30 



LUIGI CASTIGLIONI IN 1785. 



the sea. This river, which is more than a mile wide, is navigable for 
vessels for eighteen miles from its mouth and for boats for more than 
fifty, wood being brought to the city by means of floats from a hun- 
dred miles away. Newbury-Port has about three thousand inhabi- 
tants and is built partly of wood and partly of brick and has the ad- 
vantage of very pleasant surroundings. Its principal trade is in salt 
flsh and timber which they export to the West Indies and they bring 
back in exchange molasses, that is here distilled into rum and aqua- 
vite. The 26th I remained here being obliged to delay my trip by 
an ancient law, which prohibits traveling on Sunday. The obser- 
vance of the Sabbath being one of the precepts most strongly taught 
by the Protestant religion and particularly by the Presbyterians ; it 
being forbidden on that day not only to indulge in play or music and 
in any kind of amusement for passing the time, but even to travel 
and in church time to walk about. Certain persons are chosen by 
the people called Wardens or Guardians who patrol the streets and 
arrest any one disobeying the law ; and since they are greatly respect- 
ed on account of their office they impose ordinarily pecunary fines 
on the transgressors, obliging those who wish to travel on Sunday to 
set forth the reason why they must do so, and obliging them to desist 
if their reasons for doing do not seem sufficient to them. These laws 
contrary to the other principles of liberty and toleration now established 
in the United States exist only in the states of Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, Connecticut, and in Rhode Island, where Puritanism, the 
most fanatical of all the sects established in America, has its great 
strength. Never the less in Boston, and even in other cities and vil- 
lages, they do not elect the Guardians and strangers enjoy a perfect 
liberty. 

The 27th I crossed the Merrimack river and continued my trip to 
Salisbury and passed the boundary of Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire at Hampton. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



T his Salem clergyman and diarist was a person of unusual at- 
tainments whose rare benevolence, ardent patriotism, origin- 
ality and independence of character made him a marked man 
in his generation. In years to come he will be best know by his in- 
valuable ”Diary” which was edited by the writer of these lines, and 
published in four volumes in Salem, in 1905-1914. It may be com- 
pared in vital interest and historical value with the diaries of Sam- 
uel Sewall and Samuel Pepys ; but it also possesses an individuality 
quite its own. In his not infrequent journeys about the country he 
minutely recorded every thing of interest that attracted his attention 
and these descriptions are here reprinted from his published "Diary.” 

Monday, April 30, 1787. I went for Newbury in a chaise with 
Lydia Mason & arrived at Newburyport at 12 o’clock. I put up at 
Capt Noyes’ dined with him & spent the evening with Mr. Murray. 
I found him a Scholar & a Gentleman. His Lady is of a most excel- 
lent person rather corpulent, but of a fine countenance. Tuesday was 
the Quarterly Fast at the Presbyterian Church. The rigid doctrines 
of the Confession were preached by Mr Murray in the morning, but 
rendered tolerable by the uncommon eloquence of Mr. M. who ex- 
ceeds in delivery all his contemporaries of New E. He stands low & 
appears to speak from memory, but really has his notes before him. 
In prayer he lifts the hands & sometimes applies them to the breast 
but uses no other gestures. In Sermon he is not in the least affected 
in his manner, he triumphs over his audience, & supports attention 
for three hours. In the afternoon the performances by a Mr Strong 
were contemptible. I dined on Wednesday with Mr Murray. His 
affability is engaging. He is agreeable in spite of his doctrines. I 
spent Tuesday evening with a Master Pike, who has in the press a 
Treatise of Arithmetic. He is the Master of the Grammar School, 
& of Cambridge University. I was also introduced to a Master Nor- 
ton in the South Writing School. He has raised himself by his moral 
good qualities, & his attention to study in the public esteem. Under- 

( 31 ) 



32 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



stands french perfectly. The Printer Mr Mycall gave me some Types 
from his own Foundery which did him honor. Mr Cary the Congre- 
gational minister preached on Thursday at his own house. A pious 
and rational discourse. He is a man of wealth, & of kind manners, 
as a better acquaintance shews. On Friday I returned, & arrived at 
Salem, impressed by the hospitality of the Gentlemen, whose houses 
I visited. 

Feb. 21, 1789. I went for Newbury. The roads were much blocked 
by large drifts of Snow which fell the night before, & in other places 
the earth was left uncovered. After stopping at Fairfield’s in Wen- 
ham, & Treadwell’s in Ipswich, I arrived ^t 6 P. M. at Mr Jackson’s. 
This Gentleman had a son under my instruction for several months. 
He owns a very large and elegant Mansion house on the road to 
Amesbury from N. Port, on the north side of the road. At present 
he occupies an house belonging to Mr N. Tracey built of brick in the 
great street leading to the ferry. Town House, & first Church. I was 
received with every mark of attention. Mrs Jackson is a second wife 
with a large family of very amiable children. She is of the Tracey 
family, & her father Patrick Tracey then lay at the point of death. 
On Sunday Mr J. very politely waited upon me to the Meeting House, 
in which the preachers are Messrs Cary & Andrews. The assembly 
is the best in the Port, including the best families. The weather was 
very bad, & therefore did not admit a general attendance. The build- 
ing has nothing to recommend it. In the evening we were favored 
with the company of Master Pike, author of a late treatise on Arith- 
metic, Mr. S. Hooper, Dr Swett, &c. On Monday morning I waited 
upon Dr Swett in company with Mr Jackson, & breakfasted. Dr 
Swett is a polite scholar, & can recommend himself. I dined with 
Revd Cary. This Gent ; has been ordained 20 years, but is taken 
from his public labours by a paralytic stroke, which prevents his con- 
versation, but has not otherwise impaired his memory, than by the loss 
of words, which he recollects by counting the letters upon his fingers. 
He has strong passions which he has remarkably governed. This 
evening I drank Tea at Mr Pike’s who teaches the Grammar School, 
& enjoyed afterward my classmate Kilham at Mr. Jackson’s. On 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



33 



Tuesday morning I breakfasted with Mr S. Hooper, a merchant of 
the place, and according to appointment Mr J. introduced me to 
Mr Carter who has an amiable daughter. As I wished for an ac- 
quaintance there was a favorable opportunity, for Miss C. & her 
Brother intending a journey to Boston on the upper road, it agreed 
with my plan of a return home to accompany them. We passed by 
Mr Noble’s meeting house on the right, & then Mr Kimball’s, & after- 
ward, Mr Tappan’s on the left, upon an high hill, near to the elegant 
Seat of Hon : Mr Dalton, & the farm of Mr S. Hooper, which were 
on our right, & commanded a view of the Port & of the Ocean. We 
stopped at Bradford & delivered Letters from Dr Tucker of Newbury, 
one of the best characters of the age, to a celebrated Mr Balch, whose 
good sense distinguished him in his ministerial character in his own 
generation, & makes him venerable to posterity. He is above 80 years 
of age, & has been past his public labours for 15 years. His wife is 
blind, & deaf, but an uncommon share of chearfulness falls to the 
good man’s lot. Mr Dutch his colleague was at the house, when we 
visited. We then went for the Upper Parish. The river was frozen 
& there was an excellent path from Russel ferry to Haverhill, but it 
being near night, & very cold we kept on Bradford side & put up at 
Revd Mr Allen’s. He addressed the eldest daughter of Dr Eliot of 
Boston who died before his settlement, & is now married to a Mrs 
Kent, many years older than himself. They have one child & are 
very hospitable. Haverhill is an agreable Town on the opposite side 
of the river, which side being lower than on Bradford side, gave us a 
good view over the river. After breakfast we proceeded to Andover. 
There was a lecture appointed at Mr French’s, but my company 
formed an excuse for my leaving them after I had viewed the Acad- 
emy. It is an elegant building, situated upon an hill, in free air. In 
the front are enclosed two rooms designed for private Schools, & a 
Library, &c. Between there you pass into the Academy. Between 
40 or 50 youth were present under the Preceptor Mr E. Pemberton, 
& the Sub P. a Mr Abbot. The Preceptor is an amiable man & com- 
municative. His abilities are admirable for his profession. Above, 
unfinished & fitted with benches for the religious Congregation, for 
which an house has been rebuilding, was the Hall, & Theatre. It is 



34 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



arched with great success for the exhibitions of the youth of the 
academy. The Meeting House is finished with great elegance. It 
has a tower but no steeple, & is painted in the best manner. . . . 

Expenses beside horse & Slay, Essex Bridge /9d. Wenham, Is/. 
Ips: 1/6. Newb: Bridge, /4d. New: Servant, 1/6. Shavg, /lOd. 
Bradf : Horse, /lOd. Boardmans sert : 1/6. Danvers, Upton, 1/6. 
tot: 9s/9d. 

On Tuesday, March 29, [1789] I went for Andover. I dined at the 
Black Horse in Middleton & while dinner was preparing I viewed the 
Pond lying west of the road at a 1/4 of a miles distance. The Pond 
measures a mile E. & W. & about 1/2 mile north & S. A road passes 
by it on the north, on which side the pond is viewed with great 
advantage from the top of an hill adjoining. After dinner I proceed- 
ed to Andover, & put up at Adams’ on Haverhill’s road. Then went 
to Dr Kitteridge’s 1/4 mile from the meeting house. He has a large 
mansion house finished in front with great elegance with a plan of a 
large yard. The House is on the S. side of a Hill of considerable ele- 
vation & commands a good prospect of the Great Road. After Tea 
with the Dr, & his wife an Osgood, very deaf, & a sweet daughter 
Sukey, I went in company with the Dr to Mr Chickering’s. At this 
house young Prat is confined. I found his delirium continued. I spent 
the evening at Rev. Symmes, & found him an informed & agreeable 
Gentleman. His health is very infirm. His wife was a sensible, & 
kind woman. I lodged & breakfasted at the Doctor’s, visited Pratt 
again, took my leave of the Parson, & left the town. I dined at E. 
Fuller’s a good farmer in Middleton. Visited Parson Smith, & drank 
tea & lodged at Revd Wadsworth in Danvers. He is an ingenious 
man & has a very amiable wife & family. On Thursday 11 o’clock 
A. M. I reached Salem. 

May 12th, 1789. Association met at Fuller’s in Gloucester. The 
road is at present through Chebacco, part of Ipswich. It is tolerable 
till we reach the pond on our right. From thence it is two miles to 
the inlet, upon which the meeting house stands. The Bridge is con- 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



35 



venient, but the Causeway beyond, being overflowed by the tide, 
consists of so many naked cross pieces, & stones, as make it very 
disagreable. After we are over we turn to the left in a bad road & 
in three miles reach the Meeting house. It is the most rocky parish 
I ever beheld. 12 Clergymen of the Association were present. We 
returned on the same day. In Chebacco are two meeting houses 
near to each other, which are improved alternately as the age of the 
houses & their size suit the season. They are monuments of religious 
dissentions in that place, which is still remarkable for its zeal. Mr. 
Cleveland, to whom they are indebted for their present character, 
was severely handled by Mayhew, & tho’ a man of small abilities has 
interfered in many printed controversies & his daughter in the zeal 
of Night meetings was overtaken by temptation, & fell. 

On Saturday, Aug. 1, 1789 visited Topsfield, one of the most pleas- 
ing towns in our neighborhood. After dinner Mr Porter with Mrs 
Orne went with me to a pond about two miles above the Meeting 
house on the road to Boxford. At a Mr Hood’s at the upper end of 
the pond we were entertained with berries &c., &c., &c. The Pond 
runs nearly with the road in a supposed north & south direction 1/2 
a mile, & is nearly of equal width throughout, being about a 1/4 of 
a mile under, in both directions the given distances. The approach 
to the pond upon the west side is best, but the greater part is swampy. 
We travelled through the swamp, by which we were prepared with- 
out ceremony to wade in for the Pond Lillies. We returned for Tea 
to Mr Porter s. The sides of the Pond are very shoal, which makes 
fishing with angling rods very difficult, & there was no boat at this 
time in the pond. Mr Porter caught one Pickerel. 

July 28, 1790. This afternoon I went to ride with Nancy Townsend, 
one of my singers. We passed Pickman’s farm towards Philips Beach. 
We turned to the right in the road from Lynn to Marblehead, & then 
in a few roods crossed at the left. There are several valuable Farms 
on this Spot. We arrived in a bad road of one mile & 1/2 at Philips 
Beach so called, about 1/6 of a mile long. We then alighted & passed 
bars & descended upon Blaney's Beach which was of greater length. 



36 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



I then passed alone over another headland & crossed King’s or Need- 
ham’s Beach, above 1/2 a mile long, & was upon the next headland 
within 1/4 of a mile of the Great Nahant Beach. I returned then & 
received my Companion, & stopped at Mr Reid’s on Browne’s Farm, 
now in the possession of his widow. He conducted me to a Beach at 
the bottom of his farm, exceeding in length either of the other Beaches 
excepting Nahant. We entered through land cast up by the sea, 
about midway of the Beach & North of a Pond formed by the beach 
cast up & covering about nine acres. It is drained of the greatest 
body of water, which is cast into it by a storm, through a ditch opened 
every time. At each end of the Beach the banks are high, & steep 
& closed with large rocks particularly at the northern end, projecting 
to Ram Island. Pig & Sunken rocks are directly off this Beach, & 
the Light House of Boston on the south view. The farm consists 
of 375 acres, & is this year in a very flourishing state, & is cultivat- 
ed in the following manner. 20 acres of Indian corn, 20 acres 
of Barley, & Buck Wheat, Rye blasts, 3 acres of flax, & 4 of 
Potatoes. 50 head of Cattle is the principal Stock, 29 Cows are 
milked. A very few sheep are on the Farm. The Farmer has ten 
children and is a Native of Woburn. We returned, & passed off to 
the right & came into Lynn Road 1/2 a mile nearer to Marblehead. 
We then turned round into Salem Road, & came by Gardner’s mills 
homewards. There are many little boats laying along above the 
Beach. These are the property of men in the neighbouring towns, 
who come down in the months of April, May, & June, & fish for cod, 
haddock, perch, &c. with considerable success. They will accomo- 
date from 8 to 10 men on the seats, & resemble whale boats, tho’ 
most have flat bottoms. The shore is broken from Browne’s Beach 
towards Marblehead neck, & Tinker’s Island which were in full view 
on the head north of Browne’s Beach. There are short landing 
places between the projecting naked rocks. I suspect that little com- 
pany visits this place, from the readiness to serve without pay, & so- 
licitations, &c. Barn 96 by 36 feet. 

Sept. 22, 1790. At 1/2 past 6 in the morning I went from Salem 
for Haverhill, to attend a Review of the Regiment, & to visit Capt. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



37 



Elkins, who is superintending the building of a vessel. I arrived at 
Mrs Porter’s Topsfield, about nine miles from Salem, & made my 
first stage. I then passed the meeting house on my left, & turned at 
the burying ground 1/4 mile beyond, keeping the most direct road, 
avoiding the road leading to Ipswich & Newbury on the right, & 
to Andover, &c. on the left. I passed Topsfield Pond on my right, 
& went from it at the upper end. This pond I had visited before. 
Within a few miles I passed a beautiful & small pond nearly round 
& bold banks on the left, & afterwards another on the same side, 
having made a mistake in turning to the left, instead of keeping on, 
about 7 miles from the ferry. I soon mounted a Hill, which gave 
me a sight of Haverhill steeple 4 miles before I reached the ferry, & 
this part of the road was worst, mountainous, but under repair. When 
I arrived at the ferry, I found that the Review was to be on Bradford 
side, & left my carriage, but afterwards by sending for it I was in- 
volved in several perplexities from receiving a wrong one. I carried 
letters to a Mrs Carleton, who was formerly a Bowes, & of the Brown 
family, sister of Mrs Homans. I found Capt Elkins at Herod’s Tav- 
ern below the Meeting house. The Landlord was a neighbour in 
Boston, & has a fine family of 9 children. I put up at this house, & 
found the best connections in the place, & very kind treatment. I 
visited the ship yard. I found only the Vessel of Capt Elkins on the 
Stocks. She is not of great burden. The Town has many good 
houses. An extensive prospect, being situate upon rising ground, 
descending to the river ; upon whose bank is the great Street. The 
Street extends a full mile but the group of house are at the upper 
end, & the dwelling Houses chiefly above the Street. At the lower 
end, is an elegant Seat of the Saltonstals, now the property of Mr 
Watson of Plimouth. It has about 30 acres of land, an ancient row 
of Elms, Sc Buttons, & most engaging Prospect of the River and ad- 
jacent country. At the upper end of the street is the Baptist Meet- 
ing House, the only respectable assembly of that denomination in the 
County, & that is lessening. It was found’d about 30 years ago dur- 
ing the ministry of Mr Bernard, by a Mr Hezekiah Smith, who is the 
present pastor. It is much out of repair, as are houses in general of 
that denomination. The assembly Room is in an unfinished building. 



38 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



Below is a Shop, & the entrance into the Room is by a flight of Stairs 
behind the Shop. As it is upon the Street, it opens into a Gallery 
with a handsome painted balustrade. Over the Are place at the op- 
posite end is a loft for the band, & the whole Room is finely arched, 
& convenient. The drawing Room is behind. The Congregational 
Church has a most excellent site. It is facing you as you ascend a 
street leading from the main street into the Country. The Houses 
round are pleasant & in a good style. It is painted white, has a 
steeple & small bell, which rings at one & nine in the evening. The in- 
terior part of the Church is without elegance, or any distinction. From 
the Street we are conducted a few rods back into the Duck Manufac- 
tory set up & carried on by a Mr Blodget, a very ingenious mechanic, 
of some rank, formerly in N. Hampshire. His looms are constructed 
so as every part by pins, & wedges may be brought to any convenient 
form, & his spinners use the fnethod which has in substance been 
adopted from them in Salem. The wheel which turns all the spindles 
may be assisted by the feet & hands at discretion, & is turned below. 
By a small weight he causes a stand for a lamp or candle to return, 
& it is conducted out by a wire fastened to the Spinner, at a conven- 
ient distance. He has eight looms going, & room for eight more. 
He has many good specimens of his Duck, which by a small anchor 
he lays in the river for necessary soaking, &c. There were three 
distilleries, but one of them is changed into a Brewery, & with con- 
siderable success. The water of the river is pronounced very At for 
the purpose. In this Town resides our Chief Justice Sergeant. Back 
of the Meeting House & on the side is the house of the Revd Mr Shaw. 
The scene was engaging while I was present. The River was alive 
with Boats. The opposite Shore crowded with Spectators & every 
diversion was pursued which rural life admits. The Regiment con- 
sisted of 800 rank & Ale, & the Company of Horse. The men were 
well dressed. The Col. named Brickett, at whose house was an en- 
tertainment for the Clergy, the Oflicers dining at Bradford on the 
opposite side of the River. He is by profession a Physician. There 
was a manly freedom in the higher class of people, but a strange 
contrast to the manners of the lower people, who being employed, 
instead of forming upon the rivers on rafts, & lumbering, have very 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



39 



much the manners of the people in the province of Maine, & have 
their distinguishing vices, intemperance & want of punctuality in 
their dealings. The soil on the road through Boxford was light, but 
better in Bradford. At Haverhill the river is 1/8 of a mile wide, & 
the tide flows commonly about 4 feet. We are carried over in Gon- 
dolas, when we have carriages. I saw only the young ladies of the 
place. 

23. I returned as far as Newbury. I came down Haverhill side 
with an intention to pass at Cottle’s ferry, 4 miles below the Town. 
There is a ferry called Russel’s 3 miles, entering the road by a Brick 
house on the right. But as the waterman lives on the other side, & 
Cottle on this, they establish it as a rule to pass down by Cottle’s & 
return by Russel’s ferry. After passing these ferries there are two 
roads, one on the bank of the river, & the other through the country, 
the latter being preferable for carriages I chose it but lost the beau- 
tiful prospect of the river, with which I had hitherto been entertained. 
At the first turning out I was soon brought into the lower road again 
& found I had passed a group of houses on the banks, but about 5 
1/2 miles from Amesbury I went 1/2 mile directly from the river, 
& lost every good prospect till I reached the Town. Upon passing 
on both sides I found on this the prospect most extensive but the 
roads are very hilly on this side. I soon entered the upper parish 
which has an elegant meeting house, pediment on front, & lately 
painted of a light colour. I passed this on my left, and a few miles 
below passed on the left the lower Meeting House much out of re- 
pair. This House was formerly used by Mr Hibbert a Presbyterian, 
who has withdrawn with his party, & built a House a little back from 
this spot, & has lately been rejected for intemperance. They settled a 
Bell, a most extravagant preacher, who is also dismissed. The Country 
is not the most fertile, it is much more productive on the opposite 
banks. They plant Indian Corn & sow flax. I saw no experiments on 
other grain. As we pass we see at a mile’s distance on our left Salisbury 
meeting House, & as there is a lock of the river between Salisbury & 
Amesbury on the banks of the River at the entrance there is a con- 
venient draw Bridge, which has a good effect as seen from the River. 
Several vessels of considerable burden were upon the Stocks, & many 



40 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



under repairs in view as we passed. Having passed Amesbury ferry 
we ascend an hill, which was then in the hands of the Surveyors & at 
2 1/2 miles distance lies Newburyport. A small Island shews itself 
just below the ferry, & so another at a short distance below Haver- 
hill tho' the latter is the largest, tho’ not the boldest of the two. 
From the ferry the road becomes more pleasant as you approach the 
Town. The soil at first is barren & upon a barren plain on the right 
stands a deserted Meeting House once improved by a curious Mr 
Noble. Soon we pass delightful Houses, & the Seats of Messieurs 
Jackson & Tracey entering the Town. The north is thinly settled 
& little cultivated. There are some noble buildings belonging to 
private Gentlemen. The Church of England has a forbidding appear- 
ance & the Steeples have no good effect. The best view of the Town 
is from the Powder house hill & from the water, but in no place does 
it group well. From the country it is too open, & from the water 
the best buildings are hid. They have lately erected a New School 
House in the High Street near the Pond, which has a belfry & is very 
convenient & handsome. The benches rise from the centre. No 
forms go against the sides of the building. The rise is one fcot on 
each side. The day was appointed for the Military Review\ The other 
part of the Regiment was reviewed on Monday at Salisbury & we 
had only the town companies. Some points of honor induced the 
South Company to club their firelocks & retire from the parade, tho’ 
they submitted to an inspection in the afternoon. Three companies 
with the Artillery paraded in High Street in the afternoon. I drank 
tea with Mr Moses Hoit, & supped with Dr Swett in company with 
Esqr. Atkins. I visited Mr Jackson, and my more intimate friends. 
At Mycall’s printing office I saw the best furnished office I had ever 
seen, tho’ the preference is decidedly given in favour of Thomas of 
Worcester who has lately made very rich additions to his types. 

Sept. 24. I breakfasted with Esqr. Atkins & at 10 set out for Salem. 

I dined at Treadwell’s at Ipswich, returned through Wenham, con- 
versed with Revd. Swain, & stopped in Beverley at the Manufactory 
& soon afterwards was joined by our member Mr Goodhue, & two 
Gentlemen from Connecticut, Judge Ailsbury of the Senate, & Sher- 
man of the House. Two Jennies were at work below, which carried 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



41 



about 70 spindles each. Several looms were at work, & the remark- 
able circumstance to us was the moving of the shuttle by Springs, 
which gives great velocity, & allows the greatest number of strokes. 
Above all the carding machine was most curious as it was different 
from all our observations. Two large cylinders of two feet diameter 
move in contact, & upon them other cylinders of different diameters, 
& these are covered with fine cards. These convey the wool when 
carded to a knife which cuts it & to a smooth cylinder whose upper 
service is made to assume as many projections as correspond to the 
operations of the knife, & bring away the carded wool. The speci- 
mens of the cloth were various & good. The carding machine cards 
fifteen pounds of wool in a day easily, said Mr John Cabot, who 
waited upon us, & recommended his Manufactory to the patronage 
of Government. I reached Salem before Sundown, & waited upon 
the Gentlemen to see Mr Symonds aet 99. 

Mr Mycall is now printing the last volumes of the ’'Children's 
friend,” a valuable work in Schools. Expences on the Journey, pass- 
ing ferry alone a copper, carriage at Haverhill /7d. Expences at 
Herod's 6s/. At Amsbury ferry /7d. At Ipswich 1/8. Beverley 
Bridge /9d. Expense of Sulkey, 15s/. 

*♦♦****♦ 

April 1, 1791. Set out for Andover by the way of Topsfield & 
Boxford. This road is judged the best for a Carriage, tho’ the dis- 
tance be three miles greater in this road, than through Middleton. 
At Topsfield we passed the Meeting house on our left. The Meeting 
House on our right would have carried us through the old Parish, Revd. 
Holyoke’s, to Andover in less distance but worse road. We kept the 
left hand road, as the most direct, passing several Pond’s, Pritchards 
on the right 2 miles. Wood's on the left 5 miles, &c. The roads 
which go out on the right turn off much. At 6 miles distance we 
leave the right hand path & take left at an Oak tree in the road, the 
right leading to Haverhill. We keep the left 6 miles to Andover in 
the most direct path. Four miles from Andover we see the north 
Parish Meeting House of Boxford on our right, at 1/2 mile's distance. 
Here is a Farm, & Dwelling House in good order, possessed by Gideon 
Tyler. We come out 1/2 mile below Andover north Meeting House. 



42 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



As our visit was intended for Dr Kitteridge, whom my companion 
Capt. Becket intended to consult, we passed by the Dr’s House, & 
went to the Public House 1/4 mile below formerly kept by Craig, 
since by Adams, & now by Bimsley Stevens, lately Goal Keeper, & 
Deputy Sheriff in Salem. He was a native of Andover. The road 
was remarkably good for the season of the year. There are several 
Saw Mills on the road. At two we stopped, to which roads lead on 
the left, going to Andover, at 1/8 mile distance. The Buildings are 
decent, the land not the best. In the afternoon we visited Fry’s Hill, 
nearly south of the Meeting House in north Andover, above a mile 
in the road. The Hill is very high, & steep towards the road. Quite 
round for its height, & its greatest length N. & S. It overtops the 
adjacent country. It being a fair day w^e had an extensive prospect. 
Milton hills lay from us in the line of a hill 2 miles off, & were hid- 
den. On every other quarter the eye might range without obstruc- 
tion. N. W. bore the Wachuset of Princeton, distant 60 miles in the 
road, & N. of it the Great Menadnock near Dublin in N. Hampshire. 
On the N. we saw Adrimeticus in the province of Maine, & on the 
E. Pidgeon Hill, Cape Ann & the Ocean from which we were distant 
above 30 miles. In the valley we saw on the north the Merimack 
distant at the nearest point 3 miles, & the Shawshin which empties 
into it about 1 mile & 1 /2 below the N. Meeting House of Andover. 
Methuen meeting house & houses were seen from the Public House, 
& from the Hill, & lays on the other side of the river Merimack. 
N. Parish of Haverhill appeared in full view joined to Methuen, & 
above the Houses of Dracut. The Academy on the S. W, appeared 
at 2 miles distance, & in the vale below the S. Meeting House finished 
with a Tower. On S. E. we saw Topsfield Meeting House & Spire, 
& the Road through which we had passed. We were kindly received 
at Mr Fry’s by his wdfe, who was a Mackey of Salem. After tea we 
went down to the River, just below the entrance of the Shawshin in- 
to the Merrimack. The River Shawshin flows through Tewksbury 
into Andover, & enters above a mile below the N. Meeting House of 
Andover into the Merrimack, opposite to Methuen. The River is 40 
rods wide & where it is entered by the Shawshin there is a ford of 
gravel which is passed in the summer season without hazard, tho 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



43 



the water below be of great depth. On the opposite side of the Mer- 
rimack, but a little above, enters another small river of considerable 
course from N. Hampshire. The Honourable Judge Phillips, Revd. 
Symmes & Dr. Kitteridge visited us upon our return. Our Landlord 
attended us with his perspective glass in our excursions. We visited 
the Training field on the N. of the Doctor s House. 

April 2. From the Doctor’s at 9 we set out for home. The stones 
from Andover have a uniform appearance until we reach Topsfield, 
especially those used in the walls of the enclosures, being of the 
appearance of iron mould & as if lately dug from the earth, which 
upon the first sight of them we imagined. Going and coming we 
made our Stages at Baker’s, Topsfield. I visited Mrs. Porter, a sen- 
sible woman formerly an Allen. I saw my old classmate Wildes upon 
the road, and a Mr Gould, M. A. We reached Salem at Dinner. At 
Topsfield Hill may be seen the Spires of Marblehead. We saw men 
on their rafts passing down the Merrimack River. We observed the 
shifting banks, loosing on the Methuen side & gaining below on An- 
dover side. We were informed that there were now at the Andover 
Academy 66 youth, & in last summer 73. That board is at Judge 
Phillip’s 9s., Revd. French’s 8s., Esqr. Abbot’s 7s. 6d. and Tuition 
not exceeding Is. pr week. We observed the jealousy of the Parishes. 
The North Parish complain that there own Grammar School is neg- 
lected. The Parson observes that Academies are too numerous, 
that their model is not purely republican, & that an antient institu- 
tion was best for general knowledge, that there should be provision 
for a Grammar School in every town. 

April 21, 1791. Past 8 A. M. set out for Newbury. At Beverley 
saw Revd. Oliver who told me Lee, the Methodist, was preaching in 
his parish with some disaffected persons. This parson is much 
prejudiced against the Arminians ; not much informed. At Wenham, 
Revd. Swain assures me that Mr P. of Lynn had taken freedoms with 
women in Beverley, while an occasional preacher & that some charges 
were probably just, so far as to tarrying late, kissing, &c. At Ips- 
wich, Revd. Cutler was moving a Barn he had purchased, nearer his 
Mansion House. The Parish turned out with their teams on the 



44 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787 - 1799 . 



occasion. I visited Mr Frisbie, a pious & useful minister & dined at 
Treadwell’s. Reached Newbury at three o’clock, & drank tea with 
Mrs Maley, formerly a Mason. Hon. Mr Jackson shewed me his 
elegant mansion House. It is situate in the upper Street above the 
Church towards Amesbury ferry. It has a spacious lawn behind it 
with a gradual descent, & is near the house of John Tracey. The 
banks slope from the House. The front door opens into the hall, & 
the flight of stairs is on the south side. The division between the 
chambers, is formed into a convenient apartment of the whole length 
of the building for favorite amusements of dancing, &c. On the 
north side is a wing which has a granary, chambers communicating 
with the nursery, &c. On the other side a piazza was intended but 
not built. The Cellars are in excellent order for all domestic uses, 
such as cooking, brewing, washing. There is a bathing room under 
the apartments of the nursery, &c. He intends to return to it next 
week. Doors without number, and conveniences beyond account 
present to view & we find it one of the best finished houses of wood 
in the Country. In the evening visited Revd Murray,* who has 
several students in Divinity in his House. Langdon on the Revela- 
tion of John, was our Theological Subject. Mr Murray is engaged 
in correcting the press for Dr Huntington of Connecticut, upon the 
subject of the atonement. Mr Murray has lately published his dis- 
courses on Original sin, which with those on the Origin of Evil & on 
Justification, make a large volume. His health is impaired by the 
immoderate length of his pulpit addresses. I lodged with Capt 
Noyes. 

22. I visted Revd Cary,t & had familiar conversation on the un- 
happy disunion among the Clergy of the Town. They utterly re- 
fuse each other civilities, at least, a Mr Spring will not support a pall, 
or attend a funeral at which Mr Murray joins or officiates. With 
Mr J. Tracey, I went to Church it being Good Friday. Dr. Bass, the 
Parson, & intended Bishop. His countenance is pleasing, his reading 
good & his Sermon full of instruction. He is pleased with the wit 

*Rev. John Murray, the Presbyterian, popularly called "Damnation” Murray 
to distinguish him from "Salvation” Murray, his Universalist contemporary. 

tRev. Thomas Cary, pastor of the First Church at Newburyport. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



45 



of Charles the 2d, & has the variety, but not ill nature of South. He 
entertained us with the character of Judas Iscariot. He observed all 
his faults with satyre, but of the price of his villany he observed, 
that it proved him a mean fellow, for as they would bid high for his 
friend, he ought to have made them pay dear for him at least, & not 
sell him in an hurry for 30 shillings, at a price below a horse, or 
even a dog. I dined with Mrs Maley, & spent an hour with my 
Classmate Kilham.* This Gentleman, possessed with good abilities, 
with a disposition not apt to conform to the world, & a zealous ante- 
federalist, is declining in his business under his own favorite passion. 
He informed me that our Classmate Rholf had preached, after a 
humble retirement & study of 15 years. We had not his perform- 
ances from Judges, his popularity is greater in his prayers, than in 
his Sermons. He is gone to Preach at Cambridge. At Mr Mycall’s 
the printer, I find orthodox publications multiply. Besides the works 
of Mr Murray, & Dr Huntington above mentioned, Mr Murray is 
printing a sermon on the death of Blind Prince, a Clergyman who 
died at Newbury, & is buried in the vault with Whitefield. His most 
remarkable trait is blindness. But while our best sermons common- 
ly rise no higher than 400 at an impression, I am assured 1500 are 
engaged. A Mr Lyon of Machias, at the extreme part of Maine & 
a composer in Music, has published the first number of his daily 
meditations, including one month. It has Mr Murray’s recommend- 
ation. A Mr Bradford of Rowley has also a Sermon in the press up- 
on total depravity. These events of the winter may enable us to 
judge the state of religious opinions at least in this part of the County. 
Mr Mycall proposed to reprint my Sermon delivered at Boston, from 
this circumstance that it was preached first in Newbury Port, & 
was deemed not to be Gospel. 

July 14, 1791. Went to Cape Ann to attend the association. 
Found very few members present, it being very hot. McKeen of 
Beverley was ready to preach on the accasion. A large Choir of 
Singers were collected from the several congregations. The Preacher 

*Dr. Daniel Kilham, born at Wenham, studied medicine with Dr. Holyoke of 
Salem, and became an apothecary at Newburyport. 



46 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



discoursed upon the doctrine of future punishment, the Subject, which 
since 1763 has kept the Town in confusion. He handled the subject 
without the least degree of ingenuity, & in a manner suited to affront 
one party & not gratify the other. Upon my return to the house I 
blamed the introduction of the subject, & the inconsistent manner in 
which it was located (sic). But I was alone. . . . After dinner 

we were introduced to drink tea at Mr Rogers’, the first merchant in 
the place, who has a numerous family, & preserves unusual vivacity, 
while above sixty years of age. In the evening we were conducted 
to a Mr Sergeants’ at whose house Music was prepared for the even- 
ing. There was a considerable number of gentlemen & Ladies & very 
handsome entertainment. The instrumental & vocal music w^ere 
well performed. We have nothing like it in Essex. The Conviv- 
iality is remarkable. The pieces were of different classes. At eleven 
we retired. The hospitality of Capt Rogers secured me at his house, 
and the expectation of a chearful day to succeed, made a succession 
of very pleasurable emotions. He has a fine wife, & gay children, 
who contributed their full share to the entertainment, & the pleasure. 

15. This morning it was agreed to go to Eastern Point, which 
makes the entrance to the Harbour, above a mile below the Town. 
The harbour is formed by the Fort Hill, a little peninsular on the 
west, which projects boldly before the Town, & Rocky Neck which 
runs westerly from the eastern point. The entrance is not wide, 
but of sufficient depth of water. From the town is a ledge called 
Duncan’s Ledge which runs towards Rocky Neck in a southerly di- 
rection, within which is the Head of the Harbour, a bason not much 
used, but which opens into a Cove in Rocky Neck, called Smuggling 
Harbour from a particular use made of it before the War. It runs 
also towards Sandy Bay & there might easily in a valley be formed an 
inlet, through a communication which the Sea sometimes has opened. 
About half a mile without the Fort Hill is 'Tenpound Island,” not 
containing an acre of ground, & between which & Eastern point there 
is a communication at the lowest tides, & many difficult rocks. Be- 
low on eastern point is a Ledge called Black Bess, & nearer the point 
Dog Rocks. Without the Point about one mile, eastward is Brace’s 
Cove. It has a Bluff head on the western side, which is a large 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



47 



& lofty rock. It has a Ledge on the eastern side & Rocks without 
it. It has often proved fatal to mariners, & the Cove been mistaken 
for the entrance into Cape Ann Harbour. The Cove is clear after 
you are within the eastern Ledge. It enters almost half a mile, & 
by a narrow Beach is separated from a Pond, which extends almost 
across the eastern point, which is joined to the main by this Beach 
formed by the sea, a few rods wide, & by the road not much wider 
on the side towards Cape Ann Harbour. From Brace's Rock the 
lights at Thatcher's Islands are in full view, above a leagues distance. 
The Farm of Eastern point, purchased last year by Daniel Rogers, 
who was with us, is very rough. There is a delightful grove of Oaks, 
&c. within the point, to which company resorts and enjoys a line air 
in the warmest weather. The Farm is very rough, affords pasture, 
but there was no tillage land beyond the Pond towards the Point. 
About 200 acres lay towards the point, & the rest, amounting to 300 
acres was sold together for 320 pounds. The tenant pays an annual 
rent of 27£. The House is on the road by the pond, after you have 
passed it going to eastern Point, not a mile from the Grove. Oppo- 
site to eastern Point at the entrance is a Rocky Shore called Norman's 
Woe, & about a league westerly near the shore may be seen Kettle 
Island, a small island, & a mile beyond on the same shore Egg rock, 
as you go towards Manchester. Our party consisted of above 60 
persons of both sexes. With Col Pearce in a skif we caught several 
dozen of perch, & after two we dined in a friendly manner. Another 
party in a Sloop larger than our own furnished us with Cod from the 
Bay, & after dinner till Tea parties were engaged in Walking, danc- 
ing, singing, & Quoiting, & Swinging & every amusement we could 
imagine. The Poets story of Twandillo was realized. There was 
but one instrument of Music with us, which was a fiddle brought by 
its owner to pick up a few coppers. To see him play with it upon 
his head, under his arm, &c., furnished a pleasure which the happi- 
ness of ignorance may innocently occasion. 

Hark, — his tortured catgut squeals 

He tickles every string, to every note 

He bends his pliant neck. — 

The fond yielding Maid 

Is tweedled into Love. 



48 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



We set out about ten in the morning, and arrived before nine in 
the evening safe at the same wharf. And what deserves notice, not 
a single accident, not an angry word, occasioned the least interrup- 
tion to so large a party. The principal Gentlemen were in this party, 
Daniel Rogers, Esqr, his two sons John & Charles, Capts Soames, 
Tucker, Sargeant, Beach, Col. Pearce, Major Pearson, Master Harkin, 
Mr Parsons, &c. I went to Tea at Capt Beach’s elegant House near 
the meeting House, & was conducted into the several apartments 
to observe the neatness which prevailed under the pretence of exam- 
ining an excellent collection of pictures. On the day before I had 
visited his excellent & large Family Garden, & Rope walk. I lodged 
at Esqr Rogers, who collected his family & finished the scene by an 
act of devotion. 

16. In the morning I arose before the family, & set off for home, 
& breakfasted at Manchester, & reached Salem after eleven. While 
we were on eastern point, another party, v/ith whom was the Revd 
Mr Murray went into the Bay after Cod & continued off the point all 
day. The religious controversy is not so far settled as to admit a 
coalition between the Clergymen, tho’ it is greatly promoted among 
the people. Passing a farm house in Manchester I observed a young 
girl of 14 years, & asked what the name of the rock was directly be- 
fore the door, about 1/4 of a mile from the shore. She answered 
she had never heard, & seemed to wonder at the question. Was this 
ignorance, in her, or impertinence in myself? 

Aug. 8, 1791. Went with a party to Baker’s Island [Salem harbor] 
to bring away the tools, materials, &c. which remained after the 
finishing of the Beacon. We were in a deep fog on our passage down 
but we hit the island most exactly. The Beacon is 57 feet to the 
top of the Ball, of two feet diameter, & the Ball is painted black, ex- 
cept a part on the top which was neglected & remains white. The 
Body is conical & upon a diameter of nineteen feet, to the altitude 
of 10 feet is formed a convenient room. The door is on the south, 
narrow, & painted red, as is the building, but the battens at the 
door, white, that it might more easily be found. The wdndow with 
a shutter is on the east, a foot square, & there is no other provision 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



49 



made for ventilating it. Of this I complained but we attempted in 
vain to get into the dead flat projection of the head, of one foot, into 
which many holes ought to have been made. The projection of the 
head was to have been round, but as there were objections to clap- 
boarding, it was shingled, & so is reduced to an octagon form like 
the Cone of the Building, & each length of shingling into so many 
small projections, amounting to four. It has an awkward effect. 
The whole is a generous & otherwise well executed design. The 
foundation stones are very miserably laid. Upon the island, I tra- 
versed the whole, there are a few miserable remains of the House 
which was in good order since I can well remember. The Barn has 
left its sills, & the top entire stands upon the naked posts. From 
the house, northeasterly a few rods, are the remains of the well, & 
along the stone wall, which crosses the island, near the barn, till you 
reach the eastern shore & then find the spring of excellent water, 
which supplies the cattle. Our amusement was to form a raft of 
spars, boards, &c. to bring off the shingles, waste boards, ropes, &c., 
a full load & we enjoyed the employment tho’ a wet one. We were 
without tinder, & to remedy the defect we rubbed a piece of pine 
coal, till we reached the part not entirely charred, & we had desirable 
success. A plenty of fish & fine appetites. We observed the channel 
between Eagle Island, & the Gooseberries, entering between Baker’s 
Island & Hardy Rocks. Eagle Island is said to have contained, a 
few years since, 4 acres of mowing land, & three acres are said to 
be upon Nahant Rock. Coney Island has but one & 1/2, of little 
use, the grass being very coarse, & the soil stoney. The Goose- 
berries have a little verdure with fine effect. And the Bank of Eagle 
Island being covered with verdure, & of a sudden slope, has a very 
good effect. We returned & landed at sundown, with Mr Wards 
boat, at his Wharf. Our Commander was Capt B. West, & Capt W. 
Patterson, our Crew, Capts Elkins & Chipman, with the Carpenters 
& Servants, six in number. We went with pleasure, & returned 
pleased. 

Aug. 29, 1791. At Mr W. Gray’s request I undertook to convey 
in Newhall’s Coach three young Frenchmen to the Dummer Academy 



50 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



under the care of the Reverend Isaac Smith. Their names were 
Barrett, Bonneville, & Morin, all of Martinico, & addressed to Mr 
Gray. We arrived at 11 at the Academy. Just before there had 
been two french youth from Newbury Port, but the disputes became 
so high from the turbulent temper of one of them, as to throw the 
whole Academy into confusion. The youth had this day retired, & 
the alarm was yet in all its violence from the bold threatenings of 
the french youth. After a fair representation I engaged a Mr Hale 
to receive them, & the Preceptor admitted them members of the 
Academy. The common price of board pr week is 6/, of Tuition 
one. There are above 300 acres of lands laying within the Arms of 
Parker River, which constitutes the foundation of Governor Dummer, 
& forms the principal support of the Preceptor. The Mansion House 
is a bold object, & is put into good repair. The rooms are divided 
very unequally, but from their height, & connection with a large 
entry, do not fail of a very good effect. The Academy is repaired, 
& the whole forms a good object. Tho’ the Building is not equal to 
Andover, the Group is as pleasing. I dined wdth the Preceptor, and 
after 3 o’clock set out on my return. I found at Rowley the meeting 
House filled with people, & upon enquiry, I learnt that a M. Milton, 
a pupil of Lady Huntington, was to make the prayer and a Mr James, 
a noted travelling Methodist, was to preach. We should not imagine 
our boasted liberality was real, if we should see the country upon a 
particular scale. On our return towards Wenham, we saw the three 
fine boys which came a few years since at a birth, sporting together 
on the side of the road. We did not know this circumstance of their 
birth, till their good manners made us enquire after them of the 
Coachman. We reached Salem at Sundown, & was informed on the 
road, that the French youth Duval de Monville, who had lived with 
me, had died not long since. The information is said to be by a 
Brother at Newbury. 

Sept. 13, 1791. I went for Fuller’s, Gloucester, in company with 
Mr MacKeen. We passed by way of upper Beverley in Monserat 
quarter. The road for three miles is very good, upon Taylor’s turn- 
ing to the left not so good, till we come to Dodge’s Row, on Wenham 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



51 



Neck. We then passed to the right over a bridge through the mea- 
dows, covered with some excellent Willows. We then left a Road 
to Little Comfort on the right, & proceeded to Chabacco. Till we 
reached the Pond, the road is tolerable, & at some distance beyond. 
Here we saw a rope-walk, but could not be informed by whom em- 
ployed, & in what manner. It was a curious object at this distance 
from a port, tho’ it might be of special use in the small cordage of 
the Fishery below. After entering Chebacco, the road is winding, & 
we arrive at a Bridge, considerably high, tho’ small, & the descent 
is relieved by cross pieces, which give not a very pleasing motion to 
a carriage. We then pass a causeway over the marshes, nearly 1/4 
of a mile, which being left low to be overflowed by the tide, & formed 
with cross pieces, many of whose ends now rise from the ground, 
& the stones being loose on the top, make a very uneasy passage. 
We turned in 1/4 of a mile to the left, & continued in that course 
two miles, till we reached the foot of the hill, then leaving the road 
to the left our course was over the hill. But for a year past the old 
road, has been cut by the rain which in torrents has cut it out be- 
tween the rocks several feet, & a road is made through a gate on the 
right, through which we might pass. But separating from my 
Companion, I took a little boy into my Sulkey as a guide, who leav- 
ing me at the foot of the hill, took a path to the left, & as they use 
no chaises, directed me in the foot path in the old road. I endea- 
voured to mount a most frightful hill, & soon getting out of my 
Sulkey, was obliged to lead the trembling beast up to the summit, 
with no other injury than his treading upon one of my feet which 
gave me considerable pain. Below the hill was the place of our 
destination. We found the Parson with a large family in the vale 
of Contentment, & a most frightful country. At twelve we went 
to the meeting. I performed the prayers, & Brother Prince 
the Sermon. There was a very neat congregation. The music was 
very good, & a propriety of conduct became subject of general ob- 
servation. After dinner, & some familiar conversation, the terrors 
of the road, & the hurr[y]ing night came into our minds. Three 
only of the company had resolution to set out. Brother Hubbard & I 
being in Sulkeys, & McKeen on Horseback, were directed from the 



52 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



top of the Hill to the left, & by consulting each other in a mile’s dis- 
tance we reached Squam road, & the Road to the Harbour, entring 
on the right by a Mill, & were directed to enquire for Haskell's the 
Hatter, if we ever visited the place again. Here we found a Hatter 
shop on the right, & on the left a decent House of entertainment, 
with a sign of a "Bird in the Hand is worth two in the Bush.” We 
continued this road till we came to the place at which we turned to 
the left in going & then pursued our former rout, home. We stopped 
at McKeen’s at Tea, & there I left Mr Hubbard, & returned home 
alone at half past nine. Mr. McKeen judges his Meeting House to 
be above 40 feet elevation from high water mark, & of greater ele- 
vation than the Meeting House of the upper Parish. W"e remarked 
the deception upon plains of distance, & the account of the Hunts- 
men, that a fouling piece requires a greater elevation in the meadows, 
because the earth & water draws down the bullet. Bee’s, Coy’s, 
Round & Gravelly Ponds are not on this Road, but the great Che- 
bacco Pond on our right going to Chebacco, is between us & them. 
I wished to see them, & if time would have permitted should have 
attempted it. The Methodists have given a very serious alarm to 
the Orthodox. Cleveland has abused them in the Ipswich Hamlet 
pulpit, upon a lecture to which he was invited by Dr Cutler. At 
Manchester there was a curious interview. Some of the inhabitants, 
wishing to hear the Methodists, proposed in town meeting, that up- 
on the application of two freeholders the Committee should be obliged 
to open the meeting house to any Preachers they should chuse to 
introduce. It was not thought prudent to deny this request, & there- 
fore when the vote was passed it was proposed to qualify it with the 
clause, provided no regularly ordained minister of the neighborhood 
should be in Town. It was accepted in this form. Soon after Lee 
& Smith, the Methodists sent word that they should be in town & 
preach on the ensuing Wednesday. Notice was given to Cleveland 
& Oliver to be present at that time, & they were ready. Cleveland 
preached first, & soon at a very short intermission Mr Oliver. The 
Methodists in the intermission learnt the trick, & after some idle 
debates upon inability, election, itinerancy, &c., they told the people 
that thay should preach in the School House, & accordingly the two 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



53 



services began at the same time, but a majority attended the Meth- 
odists, offering this reason that the other preaching was out of spight. 
The Methodists have preached at Ipswich, in the several paiishes, 
Newbury, &c. The Orthodox who have proclaimed a work of God 
going on in the Southern States, having now found out that it was 
promoted by the Methodists, have covered in silence their mistake, 
having confessed that Satan may be transformed into an Angel of 
Light. The poor Anabaptists are now left in silence, & will prob- 
ably diminish as the sentiments of the Methodists so happily blend 
a liberality on the five points, with as much experience as enthusiasm 
can beget. The doctrine of Itinerancy forms a dreadful puzzle with 
the orthodox, who are smarting dreadfully under the lash, & are 
convinced that they set the example. 

Sept. 16, 1791. This day being appointed for the review in Marble- 
head, I went in company with my Frenchman & John to observe the 
conduct of the day. We arrived at ten o’clock, & found the Com- 
panies just entering the parade. They formed, w^ere inspected by 
D. A. Tracey, & afterwards reviewed by B. G. Fiske. As Marblehead 
is a town composed of all nations, instructed in various religious 
superstitions, which have left no other than the same fears, without 
any light to enable them to enter into controversies, with their in- 
structions, which are rather their fears playing upon their credulity, 
they have so little knowledge of moral life, that they are as profane, 
intemperate, & ungoverned as any people on the Continent. From 
this general character, for there are some noble exceptions, every 
person expected entertainment from the folly which the day would 
exhibit. But the disappointment was great. The regiment under 
the Command of Col. Orne, junr. consisted of above 300 privates in 
seven companies, with officers all in a blue uniform, with a white 
standard, bearing in the quarter the blue stripes. The men were 
all decently clad. The firearms were rusty & chiefly without bayo- 
nets, but not disgustful. When dismissed there was some firing off 
pieces, but not such as might be expected from men who had been 
accustomed to this fault in an alarming excess. We were escorted 
by a proper guard at one o’clock to the Academy to a public dinner. 



54 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



at which 110 persons were received, & sumptuously entertained. 
Col. Lee, whose elegant house is on the parade, gave us a Collation 
at 4 o’clock in a very polite & generous manner. At dinner every 
propriety was observed. After dinner the Toasts were drank. The 
Commander of the day condescended in the manner of the place to 
give us a song in turn, while Major Swazey, Mr Sewall, Capt Orne in 
turn assisted in the same entertainment. They could not desist frcm 
liberties usually taken on such occasions to flatter national prejudices 
at the expence of other nations, & as I had a Frenchman with me, 
Col. Orne asked whether a Song upon the French might not be apol- 
ogised for to my friend. I told him that my friend was young, of a 
good family, but present upon his courtesy. However, Mr Sewall 
was betrayed into the error of singing a burlesque song, for which 
his exquisite feelings gave him adequate punishment upon discovery 
that a Frenchman was present & he made most humble apologies. 
Col. Orne senior, in his own manner said, tell the young man that 
when this same old English song was sung before a General Officer 
in public company, this generous Frenchman, with a laugh replied, 
"Dis was no make by de Frenchman.” My young friend all this 
while knew little of the matter. It is however a warning against 
the illiberality of ballads & the humble prejudices they are designed 
to support, which ought to disappear when the light of good sense 
& friendly society appear. A Capt Homans entertained us with a 
most exact imitation of low life, in the most indelicate, honest, but 
vile language of low life, for which he deserved the shouts in the 
execution, but a whipping under the gallows when the story was 
ended. After the toasts at three o’clock, we returned in procession 
to the parade, & the afternoon was spent in evolutions. First with 
Revd Hubbard, & then in company with Col. Orne, I visited the Fish 
Flakes which were covered with this staple of the Town. In our 
view from one point were 79 vessels, of which 2 were Brigs, the rest 
chiefly Ashing Schooners, & only 4 of them at the wharves. The 
ship with Jury masts was riding at the entrance of the harbour. 
There are but two places in this Town convenient for wharves, each 
of them I visited. They are about an eighth of a mile apart. No 
wharves have piers to afford two berths on a side, or room for two 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



55 



vessels on a side. The lane leading to the principal is at the lower 
end of the Town House, which is boarded up on the lower story, & 
much shattered above. The best Cove is said to be red stone cove 
at the upper part of the Town, & just below an head, which I visited, 
& whose name I forgot. The cove is named from the colour of the 
rock. 

The success of the Fishery has been great this year, but greater 
in Beverley than in Marblehead in the proportion of the shipping. 
The difference is imputed to the effects of privateering upon the 
manners in Marblehead & not to the care in fitting vessels for the 
fishery. Beverly has fitted out 30 Vessels, and the last fare now in, 
is above 500 quintals to a Vessel, amounting at the lowest compu- 
tation to 15,000 quintals. Marblehead has fitted out 80 Vessels, of 
the same burden, & the success has not been above 300 quintals to 
a Vessel or about 25,000 quintals, the whole fare. Beverley never 
went so fully into the fishery before the war, & it is believed that it 
never had in it the same quantity of fish at the same time. The 
proportion of Salem, who do not enter largely into this business, 
I have not ascertained, but will do it at a convenient opportunity. 
At Sundown I was introduced into the family of Col Lee at Tea. He 
has eight children & a very obliging wife. This gentleman has a 
very excellent person, & was highly esteemed in the Continental 
Army, & particularly by our illustrious Commander in chief. His 
want of promotion in the Militia depends on himself. After Tea, 
tho’ solicited to tarry at a public Supper, I declined in apprehension, 
from the manners of the people. I reached Salem at seven o’clock. 
I saw at a distance the work on the neck, which forms a barrier 
against the Sea, but had not time to visit it. The Lottery has left, I 
am informed, something in stock, for future repairs. 

An anecdote of the Rev : Bernard, the Bishop of the place, is, that 
on public trainings, he would carry his pockets loaded with Coppers, 
to throw to the Boys, to entertain himself with their exertions to 
catch, or to find them. This was the ostentatious virtue of the age, 
in which he lived, & passed as generosity, not diversion. It is said 
there is an admirable likeness of this eminent man yet remaining in 
his Mansion house which I had not time to see. I went into the 



56 



REV. WILLL\M BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



cupola, upon the elevated seat of Col Lee to enjoy the extensive view 
he has from that convenient place, but the air was not sufficiently 
clear for the purpose. I could see enough to believe the repre- 
sentation just. They have a seven foot Telescope in fine order, & 
they declare that they see the people pass to church in the streets of 
Salem on Sunday, such a command have they of the Town. I ob- 
served that the Beacon on Baker s Island locks directly up their 
Harbour. 

17. The Head above red stone cove in Marblehead is called 
Skinner's Head, from the owner, & the head below not of so bold 
projection into the harbor, & not so dangerous to Mariners, or to 
vessels driven from their Anchors, is BarihoVs Head, which is of much 
greater elevation. The land is exceedingly rough, & they use no 
wheels in these flakes. The wharves below the town house are 
called the New Wharves in distinction from those above. 

April 4, 1792. It being the day appointed for the ordination of 
Mr A. Parish at Manchester, upon the invitation of Mr Lee I went 
for Manchester in company with my french pupil Mr Igout about 
nine o’clock. We arrived between ten & eleven, & after twelve the 
Council appeared for the services. The House being both small & 
weak, & the day uncommonly warm & pleasant, the Services were 
performed in front of the Meeting House upon a scafford raised for 
the purpose. The solemnities were introduced by a prayer from 
Mr Cleaveland of Stoneham. His Father of Ipswich being Moderator. 
The Sermon was delivered by the Brother of the Pastor elect, Mr E. 
Parish of Byfield, Newbury, the ordaining prayer by Mr Cleveland of 
Ipswich, the Charge after ordination by Mr Forbes of Cape Ann. 
The prayer after the Charge by Mr Dana of Ipswich, & the Right 
Hand of Fellowship was given by Mr MacKeen. The Services were 
performed with decency, & listened to by the people with great good 
order. After dinner to accomodate my frenchman I went to Cape 
Ann, in company with the second son of Col. Pierce, who had been in 
France & conversed with my pupil. We were received with the 
hospitality of the place. We took Tea at Col. Pearce’s. His wife is 
a plain domestic w'oman, out of health. Mrs Williams, a daughter 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



57 



whose husband is in the E. Indies, lives with them with three children. 
Mrs Beach, an other daughter, whose husband is in England, who is 
yet in the vigour of life, gave us her company, & rendered herself 
very agreable. After supper I went to Esqr Rogers’ and lodged with 
him. 

5. Breakfasted with Col. Pearce, & after breakfast went with 
him to see his Spermaceti works, his Distillery and the numerous 
artisans whom he employs. That morning arrived a shallop from the 
Bay, out 48 hours, which brought in several hundred fish, & were in 
the act of preparing them for the flakes. We then went to Mrs 
Beach’s. They are preparing their garden which is rather too narrow 
but of considerable length, & which will be excellent when finished. 
In the middle is a fine fish pond. On the north side is the Rope walk 
in fine order layed in a bed of clay. In the mansion, which I have 
repeatedly visited, we have in the great entry & chambers elegantly 
in frames & glass all the representations & cuts of Cooke’s Voyages, 
besides a full portrait of Capt Beach upon an eminence, with a paint- 
ing of the death of Hector. At the Father’s we have an Italian view 
taken from a painting in the Pamphili palace at Rome, richly coloured, 
Mrs Beach afterwards favoured us with her company at dinner. She 
is a fine woman. I visited Charles Rogers & saw his fine wife. At 
two we set out upon our return, after many promises of another 
visit, & reached Manchester. There we heard of the intentions of Mr 
Toppan of Newbury, son of the former minister, to preach a lecture 
in the evening. His fame being great, & I never having heard him, 
I consented to tarry, & was obliged to offer the last prayer of the 
service. The first time I ever spoke in a Meeting House by candle 
light. The sermon on Abraham’s offering up Isaac was meritorious. 
We lodged at Mrs. Hannah Lee’s. 

6. After Breakfast returned to Salem & arrived at 1/2 past 8. 

May 15, 1792. Rode with Miss N. B. into Danvers, where we spent 
an agreable day with a pleasing company of Country Lasses. We 
walked, we sung, we played, & time never hung heavy upon our 
hands. We saw the good Parson planting opposite to his house. 
The head of the family was taken in distress & adopted, & does not 



58 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



know his parentage. The Children are of three sorts, & are inter- 
marrying, as the present is a third wife, & the wives had children 
by other husbands. A Mrs W. was with us, who married a young 
Carpenter by occupation, who went with an associate, her present 
husband, to Carolina, & made an agreement that should he die first, 
the other should take his widow. After his death his friend sent 
the account with the agreement, & he is now married. He enter- 
tained us with some sentimental songs. There was a raising in the 
neighborhood this afternoon, which prevented us from the company 
of the Parson. The river running from Reading to Ipswich passes 
near this house. We were decently mired in looking for Cranberries. 
We reached Salem at nine in the evening. 

June 22, 1792. By invitation from Mr Derby the Clergy spent this 
afternoon at the Farm in Danvers. We were regaled at our arrival, 
after the best liquors at the house, with a feast in his Strawberry 
beds. They were in excellent order, & great abundance. He measured 
a berry, which was 2 inches 1/2 in circumference. We saw 
whole nurseries of Trees, such as Buttons, fruit trees, & the Mulberry, 
of the last we had from him the following account. He takes the 
fruit very ripe, dries it, then pulverises it, & sows it in rows, as other 
small seed, & it grows above an inch the first year, & in five years, 
is eight & ten feet high by transplanting. This garden is much im- 
proved since I was here last. We saw Potatoes called early, brought 
from the Nova Scotia, & upon opening the hills, they were large as 
eggs at the present time. The slugs & worms do injur 3 " to his fruit. 
Besides the garden we saw a great variety of animal life. The 
Swan, a stranger among us, from Virginia. The Cape of Good Hope 
Sheep with their remarkable tails, weighing 5 pounds, & used by 
the inhabitants as butter, but of very delicate fat. The Garden is 
on our right as we went westerly from the house, & the barns, nurs- 
ery, &c. on the left. We went down to the New farm, where we saw 
in pleasing contentment some old domestic servants enjoying at ease 
the remainder of their days. As our company was mixt, we had not 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



59 



much familiar conversation. The German Gardner* is yet upon the 
Farm. At Coffee we had excellent radishes, bread, & butter, & 
cheese from the Farm. The Cheese equal to any in Europe. A pair 
of fine Horses carried the waggon to the Farm, & gave an unusual 
stateliness to the conveyance. Return at Sundown. Mr Derby re- 
ceived us with all that attention, & bounty, which gratify,while they 
distroy not the affections. We envied nothing but his liberality to 
us, because we wished to do the same things. 

March 5, 1793. This day being the day on which the Tyrian 
Lodge at Cape Ann meets, I determined to persevere tho’ the weather 
was foul, to accomplish the business of the Grand Lodge in Essex. 
The roads were bad, & after the civilities of Manchester, the French 
Gentleman, who accompanied me, dined with me at Major Craft’s, 
the public house. After dinner, through this horrible road we con- 
tinued on to Cape Ann, where we arrived in the afternoon. I could 
not refrain from observing that the appearance was very different 
from that the Town assumes from the confluence of Strangers on 
public festivals & days of rejoicing. There was too much complain- 
ing for a belief of a general content. In the evening I was conduct- 
ed to the Lodge convened in an upper chamber, by a Committee, & 
received with every civility. With the utmost coolness I waved every 
dispute, & proposed the object of my conference, a permanent union 
of interests in the present Grand Lodge. They then chose a Com- 
mittee of five persons, & ordered the Secretary to report their pro- 
ceedings to the Grand Lodge. This Committee is to deliberate on 
the subject, & report to the Lodge their opinion. We then had an 
elegant Collation, & after supper some choice songs, & retired. 

6. This day was spent in visits to Revd Forbes, the Rogers, Pierces, 
&c. Mr Beach introduced me to his Brother, arrived with his family 
from Bristol, a Tobacconist, an intelligent man, & furnished with a 
very good Library, from which he spared for my perusal Martin’s 
diet, of Natural History, ornamented with figures highly coloured. 

♦George Heussler, a German who previously had been at the Tracy estate at 
Newburyport and was ’’the first man who ever lived in Salem in the character of 
a regularly bred gardener.” 



60 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



We were received in the best manner at Captain Beach’s ; & he de- 
serves our gratitude. We saw here specimens of the Cornwall ores. 
After dinner we went with Mr Rogers to see his farm of 300 acres at 
eastern Point. Mr Rowe, the Attorney, & Son in Law of Mr Rogers 
accompanied us. The road was horrible, & my young companion 
after travelling across the neck to view the Thatcher’s Island lights 
accompanied me into the Town on foot, both of us dreading to ride 
back through such dangerous passes. In the evening there was an 
assembly, at which my young companion attended. He gave me a 
very humorous account. They had six candles, 12 ladies, 7 gentle- 
men, a black fiddler for 2s. & a fifer for Is. 6. Both sexes partook 
of the grog provided on the occasion. 

7. In the morning we breakfasted at Mr Beach’s & we had the 
company of the two English young Ladies, Daughters of Mr Beach 
of Bristol. The greatest propriety distinguished this social hour. 
At 10, we left Cape Ann & reached Manchester, & dined, & at 2 
o’clock arrived again at Salem. We were told at Cape Ann, that 
they could with difficulty provide hands for their bankers,* from the 
general persuasion that the Bay boats were more lucrative, & from 
observing the success of Sandy Bay, Squam, & Chebacco. Beach’s 
rope walk was in great good order. Sergeant’s now shut up, it is 
said, is sold to D. Plummer. Pearce has had several good Whale 
voyages, & a Ship lay ready to sail for the Cape of Good Hope. He 
expects to set his Sperma Ceti works agoing again. His distillery 
has stopped, during the winter. The Meeting House is repaired. 

March 19, 1793. It having rained in the morning, I delayed set- 
ting out for Newbury Port till eleven, & upon the road was informed 
that the funeral of the Revd J. Murray, of Newbury Port, would be 
attended this evening. The roads were as bad, as they ever are, & 
after having dined at Ipswich I could not reach Newbury Port till 
after 4 o’clock. Upon my arrival I found the people in the Meeting 
House, & with difficulty heard the close of the last prayer, & the 
Singing. I was informed that the first prayer was by Dr Langdon, 
of Hampton, the Address by Mr Whittimore of Stratham, & the last 

*The Grand Banks fishing fleet. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



61 



prayer by Mr Morrison of Londonderry. The order of the day was 
read from the pulpit by Mr Tombe, now preaching in the Congrega- 
tion. After service the procession formed for the Burial ground, in 
which Mr Murray requested to be interred, rather than in the Tomb 
under the Pulpit with Mr Whitefield, Parsons & Prince. The easy 
access to it, had rendered it exposed to indecent freedoms which dis- 
gusted him. In the procession first went the Church, Deacons, & 
Elders, & the Clergy present on the occasion. Then the corps sup- 
ported by young men of the Congregation, & the pall supported by 
Dr Langdon, Dr Bass, Dr Haven, McClintock, Mr Euwer, & Mr Mor- 
rison. Then followed the relations & friends. Above 350 couple 
were in the procession & crowds in the street. Above 6,000 people 
were collected on the occasion. After the service I spent the evening 
agreably & lodged at Doctor Swett’s. Dr Swett assured me that Mr 
Murray discovered firmness till the close of life, spent the time in ex- 
horting his friends, who crowded round his dying bed, & could not be 
prevented by the most earnest remonstrances of his friends, & the 
physicians. Mr Murray gave them to sing in his house the 33 & 75 
Hymns of the 2d Book, Watts. 

20. After breakfast with Capt Noyes I rode up to the bridge over 
the Merrimack, & confess myself much pleased with plan & the ob- 
ject. The execution is equal to the design. The proportions I had 
already seen. The Island may be rendered delightful & there is a 
public House already erected by the proprietors of the Bridge upon 
the Island, & it is nearly finished. As yet it has produced nearlj^ 
double to the simple interest of the money, but how far curiosity, & 
the openness of the winter, by which the ice has been impassable, 
may come into the account, cannot yet be determined. I returned 
& dined in company with the Mr Traceys, & Jackson & Dr Swett, 
with Col. Wigglesworth. He is a hospitable man, sui generis. His 
little daughter gave us some pleasing specimens of her music in sing- 
ing. In the evening we visited St Peter’s Lodge. The reception was 
kind. The tables diagonally placed, the company too numerous for 
the tables, the room badly illuminated. The lodge was opened & 
closed with Prayer. The Master M. Gale. Spent evening at Dr 
Swetts with some french company. 



62 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



21. Breakfasted with Mr J. Tracey, spent Morning with Mr Jackson 
& Dr Bass, & rode to the Academy* & dined with the Preceptor. 
The road was very bad, & clayey, & a violent snow storm came on 
which lasted all day. The Academy is much repaired, a new white 
balustrade fence is before the Mansion House. The Old School built 
for M. Moody, & since a writing school, is neglected. It contains only 
the great desk provided by Mr Moody for the Academy chamber, 
which is now cleared for exhibitions. There are about 20 youth at 
the Academy, & the Preceptor is a man of great diligence. He usu- 
ally preaches in the Academy on Sundays. In the evening I was re- 
ceived at Swasey’s Tavern by a Committee from the Unity Lodge in 
Ipswich. The members present were the Master Col. Wade, the Sec- 
retary Major Burnham, & Major Swasey, & Capt. Dodge. They rep- 
resented their Lodge as having only 12 members & seemed more re- 
tarded by the smallness of their numbers than any other cause. In 
the war their members exceeded forty. Capt. Dodge was with me 
in the Convention, & still seemed wounded with the idea of working 
under modern masons, an idea which had been expressed with some 
warmth by B. Boardman, past Master, in St Peter’s Lodge. It was 
agreed to give me Letters A I found afterwards to pay my expenses. 
We supped together, & I enjoyed the Company of a very respectable 
Committee. 

22. Rose early, & after breakfast returned home. The roads 
very bad. Newbury Port is evidently flourishing. Many new houses 
in high Street ; & Stores opening on account of the position of the 
Bridge three miles above the Town. Several french families here, 
& a greater number of emigrants than in any other place except 
Boston. Great West India Trade. The Anabaptists, & Miltonians 
are preparing for a harvest upon the death of Mr Murray, who 
united the lower classes of people. Mr Bancroft has resigned the 
Town Grammar School, & Master Rogers has engaged to enter upon 
it next Monday. He engaged with the greatest prepossessions in 
his favour. He has taught writing & reading, & therefore he certain- 
ly can teach Latin, & Greek. The teaching by Duncan’s Cicero, & 
Davidson’s Virgil is so common, said the Preceptor of Dummer Acad- 

*Dummer Academy at Byfield Parish. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



63 



emy to me, that no other School Books are to be found. The Select 
Orations of Tully, without a version cannot be purchased. The new 
way is taught at the Andover Academy. 

April 23, 1793. Set off for Tewkesbury to visit my old Landlady. 
Did not easily recollect the road in Danvers, which turned off 1 1/2 
mile to the left, & again about 3 miles at a house projecting at the 
angle. Keeping to the right directly. After stopping at the Widow 
Upton’s found the left hand direct road, the highest, not the best, & 
when I came within sight of the precinct Meeting house of Reading, 
I turned to the right & came out by the meeting house, when 70 rods 
nearer, I might have kept on & come out at the public house, 1/2 a 
mile beyond the Meeting House. After having passed Wilmington 
above a mile past Esqr Ford’s on turning to the right I passed be- 
tween the House & Barn which were the second on the road, then 
kept to the left, & upon passing the Shawshin rode upon the banks 
of the River to the Mills & to Boardman’s. After dinner I rode on 
to Andover through Tewkesbury woods. It is five miles from Board- 
man’s to the South Meeting. The road direct. Some danger of 
turning to the right. Passed the Shawshin below the south meet- 
ing house, which was then a beautiful stream. I stopped at the 
meeting House lately finished & obtained entrance. The exterior 
appearance is the best. The house is crowded within & has no pleas- 
ing appearance from the proportions. It has a pendant canopy, & 
an inscription over the pulpit. Holiness becomes thy house O Lord, 
forever. The communion Table is in what we called the Elder’s 
seat. So that we find the desenters begin to inclose & we are told 
as to the discipline they enclose in this place with a vengeance. The 
way to mount the Tower is not convenient. The Bell is in the Tower, 
& too much enclosed. It is a fine Bell, & is the gift of Samuel Abbot 
Esqr whose name is upon it with this Inscription. To all the people 
I do call, & to the grave do summon all. It is deep toned, & excel- 
lent. The lantern, as it is called, upon the dome has not so good an 
effect, as I should have wished for so much expence. There are a 
number of fine houses in the great road which have a fine effect up- 
on the Traveller, & astonish him noticeably with the idea of ease by 



64 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



affluence. The farms have great neatness, & convenience. I then 
went on to Mr Isaac Parker's & Col. Lovejoy’s at the entrance 
of a Lane about 1/4 of a mile on the south side of the South Meet- 
ing House. I found in one a good farmer & in the other a very at- 
tentive Gentleman. The farmer has everything in order around 
him, & much of that facetiousness which makes the most laborious 
employment set easy. He has a wife & four very young daughters 
very agreeable. The family were baptised by me last fall. An aged 
father, trembling with the palsy in the limbs, & helpless, with a good 
countenance bore ample testimony by his language & appearance 
to the fidelity of his children. He had been an old soldier in the 
french wars & had a very open, & engaging look. The son had 
been in the American naval service in the last Civil war of America. 
At this house, which is furnished with a large chamber, this evening 
a company of 20 couple were to assemble for dancing & amuse- 
ment. They visit this house for these purposes in classes, accord- 
ing to their ages, not with any regard to their condition, as in the 
Seaport Towns. They seperated at the usual hours of Assem- 
blies. They have Violins & flutes for their music, & sometimes the 
drum. For the convenience of Lodging after Tea I went to Col. 
Lovejoy’s. He conducted me to the North meeting house, which 
was built 40 years ago. The order of the Door has not that appear- 
ance which the improvements in architecture would give it at this 
day. The hipped roof of the Porch I prefer to the pediment of the 
new House. The steeple is too small as it rises from the dome, but 
the ill effect has been lessened since the late repairs by diminishing 
the shaft above. The interior view of this house from the conven- 
ience of parts makes it look larger than the other house, & it is 
much better finished throughout. The sw^ell of the pulpit is not suffici- 
ently large but the whole has a good effect. They have a clock up- 
on the front gallery, & a very excellent one in the Steeple with point- 
ers. The pendulum is not hung wfith ease, but the clock is good. 
The bell of about 500 Wt is sharp & clear, a good tone. We returned 
to the Col’s & after familiar chat we retired in good season. 

24. This morning we rose & rode 3 miles tovrards the river. 
Then walked to the place intended for the New Bridge, & for w^hich 



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65 



the Banks are cut down to move the Timber, & here we saw the 
people on each side seining for Salmon & other fish. We saw a 1000 
alewives caught in one draught. They had taken one salmon of 20 
wt: pick[er]el, shad, suckers, &c. Their method was in a fiat boat 
of about 14 feet in length, & three in breadth with a wide stern, up- 
on which is a table for the seine, which is furnished with scuppers 
to void the water. With this they go up the eddy formed by a pro- 
jection of rocks & logs into the river, & then row violently into the 
stream [and] discharge the net from the stern. On the shore two 
men hold the rope fastened to the seine & begin instantly to draw 
down. The men in the boat quicken the motion of the boat in the 
stream till the whole seine is drawn from the boat & then make to- 
wards the shore, the rope from the boat to the seine being about 3 
times the length of the boat, as is the length of the wood, which 
forms the eddy. The men on the shore continue to draw down till 
they have come within 100 feet of the boatmen, & then draw the 
ends of the seine upon the shore. Then they pull up the seine, clear- 
ing it as it comes up within a few feet of the shore. Then they rest 
a few minutes till the fish cease their furious slapping in the water, 
& then they empty the seine, & begin again. The Seine is about 
100 feet long. It is sunk at bottom by the leads, & floated at top 
by wooden buoys, 2 feet distance. The intertexture of the lines is 
called the Marish. The middle of this seine was of the alewife 
marish, of a smaller texture than the other parts. We received a 
dozen of the alewives from the fishermen, who sold them at 2s/ pr. 
100, or as caught in the brooks, by the order of the Town, at a pistar- 
een. The vote of the Town last year was that a committee should 
be chosen to fish in the brooks at the Town charge, & the fish were 
to be delivered at a pistareen pr. 100. We left the river & then rode 
through the woods, which are of pine shrubs, & exhibit a melancholy 
contrast to the other parts of the town. The buildings, the inhabi- 
tants, & the animals, all shew the unfavourable soil upon which they 
are employed. After a zigzag ride of four miles, repeatedly crossing 
the sweet stream of the Shawshin, which here finished its course in 
the Merrimack, we arrived at the Paper Mills erected upon this river, 
& found them in great order. The vats below, the two mills above. 



66 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787 - 1799 . 



the conveyance of the water, the various employments of the persons 
at work, of both sexes, gave pleasing entertainment. The drying 
rooms were large, & convenient upon every account. The powder 
mills were a novel sight, upon the construction of Fulling mills as to 
the motion given to the pestles in the mortars, by levers from the 
axis of the wheel. We then passed the S. Meeting towards home, 
which we reached at noon. We dined on Salmon, & the Alewives 
were received & the alewives fresh made no mean entertainment at 
the Col’s Table. We were much indebted undoubtedly to the Cook, 
who excelled on the occasion. After dinner I returned through 
Boxford & Topsfield to Salem, which tho’ of a distance much greater 
than on the roads by Reading or Middleton, amply compensated me 
by the goodness of the roads, the fine farms, the beautiful landscapes, 
ponds & rivers. At Topsfield I spent an hour in chearful chat in a 
wedding house where the minister. Lawyer, squire, &c. were assem- 
bled, the men in one room, & their wives in another, the men having 
the best room, & all the attendance. For my amusement besides 
anecdotes, &c. I was furnished with several late publications of the 
ministers in this neighbourhood which informs us of the state of this 
order which has so much influence on society. Bradford of Rowley, 
Sermon at the Ord. of his Brother forms the clerical character upon 
the cant term of '’experience” which will admit of many consequen- 
ces, being explained only by inward light. Dutch of Bradford, at the 
dedication of his new Meeting House, taking as his text the gold letters 
over his pulpit, "O worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness,” runs 
along in a muddy stream, till he unburdens himself with the account 
of the oblivion of the old house, which should teach them to put into 
the bottomless pit; the same\ their old man, not the old minister who 
was already dead. Williams of Methuen has offered to the world his 
farewell sermons, after a most bitter dissention. He is a son of an 
old Presbyterian Willians, natives of Ireland & the father often de- 
ranged. The dispute began about a Wood lot of the Parsonage & a 
challenge from the pulpit at a weekly Lecture, which one of the par- 
ishioners accepted. The parson seems to wish them well, but is 
terribly inveterate against a class of illiterate ministers, & a class 
called Hopkintonians, tho’ not here named. Neither of these per- 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



67 



formances contribute much to prove the clergy enlightened, simple 
in the ideas, or sweet in their tempers. The inscription upon their 
Houses is not in the style of sentiment of the New England settlers, 
& proves infallibly, that the Catholic Church is formed of materials 
existing in the constitution of human nature, as connected with 
certain states of society. The I. H. S. on the front of the S. Pulpit 
in Andover may well express in Humanitate Sum. In drawing 
comparisons nothing can be said in favour of these men, as in their 
office, in regard to society, we see, morals will make the worst opin- 
ions harmless. 

The situation of Andover being elevated there are fine prospects 
from its hills, & the view of the Town is opened in every part, & 
beautifully diversified. There are seven bridges over the Shawshin, 
which is nearly of the same width & depth through the Town of 
Andover. It is said to rise in Lexington. Seems as large in Tewkes- 
bury as at its mouth, & being deep in its bed, & confined, is subject 
to sudden flows. It is about 20 feet wide, & from 2 to 6 deep, where 
it is not obstructed. The Town of Andover is much cut up by roads. 
The poverty of the Land towards the Merrimac prevents this from 
being a great evil in that quarter. The Shawshin rises & falls 10 
feet in 12 hours, & the bridges are high upon that account, but too 
narrow, an evil from being a Town charge. There is not much fish- 
ing in this river, which is obstructed by the Mills built upon it. I 
saw some children with scoop nets amusing themselves. I found 
my friend Boardman has detached his interest from Mr Simons, re- 
nouncing all right in the house near the mills & the lands, & giving 
up the Mills saw & grist mills upon the Shawshin for an annual quit 
rent of 50 bushels of grain during Boardman’s life. They have set- 
tled a Mr Barton at Tewkesbury. Madam Boardman has passed her 
80th year. The land is in general poor in the Town of Tewkesbury. 
Salmon here at /5d a pound. As to the Cultivation of Andover, I 
found at Col. Lovejoy’s that he had the reputation of the greatest 
quantity of English Hay, & that Mr Parker had preserved excellent 
wood upon his farm. Among the elegant houses, the one which 
meets us coming into the great road from Tewkesbury, belonging to 
one Poor, a Tanner, is not the least elegant. There are several 



68 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



Physicians in the Town, among whom Kitteridge is distinguished by 
his elegant situation, agreeable manners, & extensive practice. The 
minister in the south parish asserts the rigour of his predecessor, 
& supports the character of the last age of American manners. The 
influence of example is every day increasing. He decides upon the 
secular concerns of his church agreably to the antient rigour. The 
most aged minister in this vicinity, Mr Morrill, is approaching to 
the end of a long life by means of a Cancer in the Mouth. He has 
been subjected to great mortifications for Arminianism, a charge 
which implies liberal enquiry, & popular prejudice, & stands for any- 
thing unhappy in a man’s situation. I returned to Salem with St 
Cyprian’s works, & a bunch of sweet Thyme for the Ladies, & so 
ended a short journey in which the roads were in the best order, & 
the weather the finest conceivable. I rode without surtout. 

April 27, 1794. Sunday. Went this morning on an exchange to 
Boxford, South Parish. The Rev. Holyoke is disabled by a paralytic 
stroke. I took the road, leaving Topsfield meeting on the right, & 
after 3/4 of a mile took the right hand through a road which did not 
seem to be much used, & which was but poorly settled from a visible 
cause, the poverty of the soil. The Rev. Mr. Holyoke & his family 
received me kindly. His wife is agreable. An only daughter at 
home gave us her company in modest silence. The meeting house 
is small, well painted, without spire or bell, & the congregation made 
a very decent appearance throughout. A Mr Adams from New 
Rowley, an adjoining vacant parish gave us his company at dinner, 
& told us the Anabaptist minister had also left from the circulation 
of some reports respecting his immodest freedoms. This is the third 
seperation of these amorous zealots in the County since I have lived 
in it, besides other uneasiness from the same cause with men of the 
same character. 

♦ ♦♦*♦**♦ 

May 21, 1794. This day I visited Marblehead, with inteiTtion to 
examine the Neck which forms their harbour, but not having even 
my compass I was obliged to content myself with a very superficial 
survey. Revd Messieurs Story & Hubbard accompained me. We 
travelled near the shore from the high rocks before the Town called 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



69 



Bartold’s head, leaving below us the new wharves. Above were the 
old wharves called Nickes cove wharf. We then passed Waldron’s 
cove & reached Skinner’s Head, & cove, & then red stone cove, & then 
rotten Cove, & then Whale cove, & came to Euit’s head, & came to 
the Sea bank called river’s head. We passed on the outer side, & on 
the further part saw the new works erected from the late Lottery, 
against which the public has so much complained. We found the 
Stones thrown up at considerable height as we approached the Neck. 
The tide being up, most of the rocks which lay off towards Ram 
Island were hidden, & those which lay between the neck & Tinker’s 
Island. We reached the Western point, & from the headland, had 
an elevation which opened Tinker’s Island, so as to shew the passage 
the Sea has between the parts of it. We continued our walk on the 
outer side of the Neck, which has rocky head, & beaches between 
as on the Shore of the Towns tho’ not of so great elevation, except- 
ing about the middle of the neck, which is supposed to extend half a 
mile in a straight line, but must exceed that distance. In this dry 
time we found several places filled with water, & the low land in a 
very neglected state. It is said the whole neck includes 180 acres, 
the greater part of which is pasturage. Mr Andrews who has the 
best House on the Neck, is wealthy, possesses 27 acres, part of which 
lays in the rights of the Common land, tho’ each man knows his spec- 
ial property. There are now three dwelling houses upon the Neck 
besides their barns, & several fish houses. It is said that there ware 
formerly 12 houses, but by the cellars they are judged to have been 
small, & not to be compared to these now standing. Mr Andrews’ 
house was built before the war, is painted & in good repair with out 
houses, & excellent stone walls. The other houses are the common 
farm houses two stories with pitched roofs. The neck is widest 
about 2/3 up toward the causeway westward, & it is one mile 1/2 
from Capt. Andrews’ House to the New Meeting House in the Town 
over the Causeway, about half a mile across the harbour, which is 
nearly of the same width throughout. The point of the Neck outward 
between Marblehead Rock & Tinker’s Island has rocks laying off called 
Tom Moore's Rocks. The point opposite to the fort, & which makes 
the mouth of the Harbour is called Point Black Jack, & within it is 
formed a Cove called Carder’s Cove. The Fort was erected in the 



70 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



last war upon a Headland below the Town, & which is never sep- 
arated at the highest tide from the mainland, & beyond it lays Orne 
island, which can be approached on land only on the ebb. Above the 
fort lays Ingoll’s beach upon which Leslie landed his troops at the 
commencement of the War in 1775. The Harbour is not sheltered 
from the east wind, & between Boden’s point & Skinner’s head 
about 1/4 over is Boden’s ledge of Rocks upon which there is in the 
common ebb 1 1/2 fathom of water, & at the lowest ebb 7 feet. 
They are Called Boden’s Rocks, but are a real Ledge of some extent 
& scattered round. I did not have the pleasure of visiting Tinker’s 
Island, which I was assured could be visited from the Neck by wad- 
ing in about 3 feet of water. It has much less land than I thought 
as viewed from the Neck, than I judged from the Sea. There has 
been one melancholy shipwreck upon them since I have lived in 
Salem. The Sunken rocks laying eastward of Cat Island, called in 
Salem, Satan, are called in Marblehead, the Porpusses. 

Nov. 24, 1794. Left Salem with Mr Priestley on a Journey to see 
the new Bridges of this County. We visited the Beverly Manu- 
facture, which from the fruitless attempt to manufacture cotton vel- 
vet, & unfashionable goods, is now converted to the profitable busi- 
ness of Bedticks, & the demand is much beyond the ability of Mr 
Burnham to supply. 60 hands are now employed in Beverly Manu- 
factory. We reached Ipswich & were kindly received at Revd Dana’s 
for whom we carried Letters. After viewing the New Court House 
the plan of which is to be seen, tho’ yet it is unfinished, we passed after 
dinner to the Academy Dummer, & spent an hour with the worthy 
Preceptor Smith. We had not time to visit the Woolen Manufactory 
established three miles from the Academy, from the shortness of 
the Days. We spent the first part of the evening at Revd Andrews 
in company with Revd Carey, very agreably, & then went & supped 
at Mr Jackson’s, & lodged at his house. They have purchased an 
elegant organ for the first Church, of American manufacture. 

25. We spent the morning in visiting the Town. There is a new 
Meeting House built for a number of Seceders from the Presbyterian 
Church, who have at length settled a Mr Milton, & the Presbyterians 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



71 



have settled a Mr Dana, to whom we had letters of address, & by 
whom we were kindly received. We visited the rope walks, which 
were now decorated in honour of Queen Catharine, on a day bearing 
the name of a Saint Catharine. We visited the new Charity house, 
which is a brick building, now erecting, & only finished on the ground 
floor. An entry passes through the middle leaving four rooms on 
each side, exclusively of the rooms assigned for the Overseer at the 
northern end. The upper part is to contain two large Rooms for 
business, & for the Overseers ; till they are necessary for other pur- 
poses. We visited Mr Parson’s, our eminent Lawyer, & various other 
characters, & dined with Dr Lovett in company with the amiable Mr 
Jackson, who returned the visit to Dr Swett, who had breakfasted 
with us in the morning. After dinner we took leave & went towards 
Haverhill. We were advised to go up Newbury side of the river be- 
cause the road was better, tho’ the Amsbury side was shorter. We 
passed half a mile above grasshopper plains, where stands a meeting 
house, to view the New Bridge, & returned, by a path which short- 
ened our distance, to the plain near the meeting house making a 
Gore of Land. We were advised to pass Cottle’s ferry, or at Brad- 
ford lower Meeting at Bussel’s ferry but we continued up till we 
reached the Bridge, and it was too late to examine it. We spent an 
agreable evening at Herod’s, & lodged that night at his house. We 
had a pleasing company of Ladies. 

26. In the morning, Mr Bartlet, our high Sherif, & a candidate 
for Congress, who superintends the building of the Bridge, waited 
upon us to examine it. We found the piers of Stone, & three arches. 
We wait for a circumstantial discription to be assured of all its pro- 
portions. We then had purposes of visiting the Bodwell Bridge be- 
tween Andover & Methuen, but the cold & the wind in our faces 
made us relinquish this object as well as the Canal at Patucket falls, 
& even above at Goff’s Town, with the Bridges. We returned by 
Boxford & Topsfield to Salem, & arrived before Sundown. Haver- 
hill Bridge is 563 feet long, with three Arches 183 feet each in length, 
34 feet wide, upon stone piers, & abutments. 

April 18, 1796. I left Salem to go to Andover, to visit my friend 



72 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



Gen. Fiske, who has been long in that place for the advantages of 
the air, the retirement, and the attention of Dr Kitteridge, who is 
famous for his success with deranged persons. When I arrived at 
Stephen’s I found the fishing Time had come on, but the Fishing in 
the brooks was by the Town, according to Law, an exclusive privi- 
lege in the hands of a Committee. One of the particular brooks is 
the Quochechiuque which is the outlet from the pond one mile N. E. 
from the Meeting House to the Merrimac, being about two miles 
in its course, passing the road not a mile N. of the N. Meeting House. 
The pond is large, & of an irregular shape. It is several miles 
around it, but I only saw it from the Hills. I was upon the hill op- 
posite Frye’s which I had visited once before, & upon the hill north 
of it, between Fry’s & the Pond. I did not go to Wyere Hill which 
is between the Meeting House & the Pond. 

19. This morning after breakfast in company with Col. Lovejoy 
I left Andover to see Methuen, one of the Towns of Essex County. 
I had crossed the river before at Bodwell’s falls, & at the upper part 
of the Town at Richardson’s but had not been far from the banks of 
the River. We had to ride about three miles to Bodwell’s falls where 
the new Bridge is erected. We crossed the Bridge on the Shawshin 
at Poor’s in a mile & 1/2 & a Brook called Cold Spring, & had in 
full view a regular hill called Tower Hill in Methuen, which touches 
the river between Bodwell & Peter’s falls, & has a ferry on the river. 
We turned short to the right hand and came to the Bridge. I w^as 
not able to get the dimentions of this Bridge. It was represented on 
the planking to reach 38 rods, above 600 feet. The water courses 
are four, & all supported overhead. The first floor is flat, but the 
other three are arches. The piers are covered with square timber 
& filled with rocks, & the work looks well throughout. There were 
seines employed on both sides of the river, but they took only Shads, 
Suckers & alewives. We purchased a few as they came out of the 
water. Having passed the Bridge, we left W’^hite’s on the right, & 
soon passed a guide Post, telling us, that it was 17 miles to London- 
derry, & so to Patucket falls, -which is said to be a corruption of Pau- 
tucket. We crossed a Brook, & then came in view of the Spiquet, 
a beautiful Stream, w^hich rises in New Hampshire, passes through 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



73 



Methuen & empties into the Merrimack, opposite to the Shawshin. 
Its course was judged to be S. E., & it passes near New Salem Meet- 
ing House in N. H. near the Road. As we ascended Conant’s Hill 
we saw the Spiquet pouring its waters along at the Foot of this Hill, 
which is high & steep, & now the land begins to look of a much 
better soil, as well as cultivation. A view of Methuen from the op- 
posite banks of the River would give the beholder a very unfavour- 
able opinion of the Township, & would justify the censure of Andover 
whose inhabitants long called it Littleworth. But the opinion is 
more favourable when we see their Oaklands, well cultivated spots, 
& the general appearance of ease & prosperity. It is said to have 
gained much within a few years, & the Farms are in better hands. 
The high lands give fine prospects, & we were relieved from the fa- 
tigue of mounting Conant’s Hill, by the scenes which opened before 
us. As we approached the Falls, the Farm house, & the Farm of 
one Osgood appeared on the other side of the river in good order, & 
cultivation. In two miles from the Bridge we reached the Cascade 
at the Falls of the Spiquet, which is indeed romantic. The Road 
runs just above & just below the falls, & there are the best advan- 
tages for viewing them on every side. While the stream is full they 
are enchanting. The whole fall is fifty feet, but the descent over the 
rocks, which forms the cascade, is 30 feet. Above the falls the stream 
divides & leaves a little Island over which a road passes by two small 
bridges. The Island is full of large Oaks. The east branch would 
lead off the water, & as it passes the Island, is not interrupted. This 
branch is checked below the Island by the Timber, which passes over 
its mouth, & keeps it up several feet. The western Branch is broken 
by continual falls over the Rocks, till it reaches the rocks, where it 
mixes its waters with the other branch & pours down in the beauti- 
ful Cascade, into a bason below. On the western side there is a grist 
mill, & fulling mill, & on the eastern a small wheel to grind scythes, 
& all tools of husbandry. The water passes from the bason below 
with an inclination eastward, which gives a convenient stand in front 
of the falls to see the water precipitate itself from the rock. The 
cascade is several times broken, but the whole has but one interrup- 
tion from the projecting sides of the rocks at 2 /3s the height. The 



74 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



rock is shelving, & slate rock. A Sergeant holds the mills, & keeps 
a public house in this neighbourhood. In one mile we reached the 
meeting House leaving on our right the parsonage lot of wood chiefly 
oak. Not far from the Meeting House is the late Mansion of the 
first Minister, Sargeant, who was the father of our late Judge Sar- 
geant, so eminent on our Supreme Bench for his Law Knowledge, & 
lately deceased at Haverhill. The Estate is now held by a Bodwell 
by purchase. Rev. Sargeant was in this Town 50 years, & not long 
since died. He was succeeded by a Mr Williams, Son of the Revd 
Williams of Windham, not far from this place, for whom a Manse 
was built upon the glebe not far from the Meeting House. Mr 
Williams soon left his charge from some civil dispute, & is since set- 
tled at Meredith. Last December they ordained a Perley from Box- 
ford. By an advertisement on the Door of the Meeting House, it is 
to be taken down on Wednesday April 21, which is the next day. 
The Pews had been taken out, & preparation made. This is their 
first Meeting House. It was small, & in the usual proportions of 
our Meeting Houses. Never painted within or without. The timber 
was on the spot for a new Meeting House, which they expect to 
raise in May. It is to be upon the plan of the New Meeting House 
lately finished in the lower Parish of Bradford. With a tower, & 
Cupola. The situation is truly delightful. The Hill on whose top 
it is to be placed, rises gently, & the best farms are near it. It com- 
mands a very extensive prospect. One Hildrich keeps the Publick 
House near the Meeting House. At a distance N. Westward, appears 
a handsome House belonging to one Huit. We left the Meeting House 
& continued our rout eastward, after having been informed that we 
left the Meeting House of the Seperatists, half a mile on our left to the 
west when we were at the Falls. We did not see it. It is now vacant, 
& the Congregationalists are to meet in it, while their House is build- 
ing. The minister, Stephens of the Seperatists, has removed & settled 
in Stoneham, Middlesex Co. The Baptist meeting is at some distance 
on the extreme part of the Town towards Dracut, and is unfinished, & 
without a Teacher. In passing from the M. House eastward, we 
went near a Square House, belonging to one Swan, which was well 
constructed, & in good order, & we had a fine view of the houses 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



75 



eastward, as we descended the long hill, till we reached Esqr Ingall’s, 
to whose house we intended to visit. He is an old man, one of the 
Justices of the Sessions, & has been in the General Court. His house 
is two miles from the Meeting House. To extend our acquaintance 
as far as we could we did not return the same way, but took our 
route through Bear Meadow woods, it being four miles from Ingall’s 
to the Bridge on this road. We passed Bear Meadow Book, & on our 
right a Clay Pit, which is said to afford as good Clay as in the County. 
There was no Kiln prepared when we passed. After we had passed 
the Woods, we came to Sow Brook, which near the road, meandered 
in the most singular manner, leaving only a few yards across to its 
course, after running in opposite directions several rods. It is above 
a mile from Ingall’s. We then came to Bloody Brook, which empties 
into the Spiquet, & saw the Ironworks. There was a Furnace here, 
but it had not lately been at work. Ore had been found in this 
quarter, but I did not hear its quality, quantity, or its situation. Be- 
low on the Spiquet we saw another small fall, at which was a Mill 
Seat, & was told of another, below it towards Merrimac. We passed 
the road to Swan’s Ferry by which our road to Andover would have 
been shortened two miles, but as the attendance was uncertain since 
the Bridge had been built, we continued our route to the Bridge pass- 
ing White’s on our return, which we had left on our right when we 
entered the Town. From the Bridge we had a view of the mouths 
of the Shawshin & Spiquet, 1/2 a mile below. After passing the 
bridge, where toll was 12 1/2 cents, we took the new road & instead 
of turning as when we passed before, kept a direct course for the 
Overshot Mills, which stand upon an artificial pond, near the Shaw- 
shin. Here a Saw, Grist & Fulling mill are supplied with their little 
streams. We then entered the road to Billerica & Concord, & keep- 
ing the left reached the North Parish, ascending a long Hill, from 
which the prospect is very extensive, & entering upon Boston Road 
from Haverhill. I dined with Col. Lovejoy, & in the evening through 
Topsfield returned to Salem. From Methuen we could see the 
Academy at Atkinson on a hill to the eastward, with the Meeting 
House, Manse, & adjacent Buildings. 



76 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



Sept. 1, 1796. Hearing much of the malignant fever in Newbury 
Port, & wishing to hear with my own ears, what was said in that 
place, as well as the state of the Inhabitants, I listened readily to a 
proposal from Dr Little to take a seat in a Chaise, in which he was 
going to Newbury Port near which was the place of his nativity, & 
in which he had his medical education under Dr Swet who was a 
victim of the disease. We left Salem about ten o’clock & dined at 
Ipswich at the States Arms. Before dinner we visited Revd Mr 
Dana, who was at his father’s house, & w^ho belonged to Newbury 
Port. This Gentleman was supposed to have had the symptoms of 
this fever, & is now upon the recovery. Upon our arrival near the 
Town we stopped at the father’s House of Dr L., & finding the fam- 
ily at Lecture in the old town we thought w^e would stop at the old 
meeting to hear what Dr More the Minister had to say about the 
fever. A young man Pierce, candidate in Salisbury, preached. We 
found the alarm was great. We rode into Newbury Port & stopped 
at Davenport’s & there found Mr Marquan,* so famous for his bold 
imagination. He had a servant sick of this fever, a negro, & in a 
high delirium. He had left his house, but was afraid to leave it with 
the negro, who had torn his bed to pieces, & such men as were sent 
to watch him. Marquan’s account did not want colouring. We 
found Water street shut up by a chain & that Mr Carter, & Mr My- 
call were the only persons who had courage to tarry in it. We found 
the Town much deserted, & there had been public religious services 
for several days successively. We sought the Clergy, & with Mes- 
sieurs Cary & Andrews I spent an hour. They could only assure 
me of the facts of the deaths, & alarms, without any reasonings up- 
on the matter. I then went in search of Captain Joseph Noyes. His 
house was shut up, & his family had gone to Hampton. I found him 
at his son’s, & as he was one of the Health Committee, I by his re- 
quest accompanied him to the Town house where the Health Com- 
mittee continued assembled all day. Capt Noyes was present with 
Dr Swetf when he died. Dr Swet was taken by vomiting on Satur- 
day, & determined, upon his own fate upon the first discharge. Dr 
Sawyer visited him, but did not prescribe, & I have not yet heard what 
*Marquand. tDr. John B. Swett. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



77 



method Dr Swet observed. A coldness in the extreme parts was ob- 
served on Monday, but the Dr died on Tuesday. He rose by his own 
strength on the bed, spake to Capt. Noyes, turned himself, & with- 
out stretching himself, sunk instantly. The body had rather a purple 
appearance at death, which soon changed for yellow spots on all 
parts of the body. He was buried decently the next day, but since that 
time there has been an hearse provided, & Coffins for instant burial 
without any ceremony. The Dr died 16 Aug. After this fact my 
next enquiry was into the origin of the Fever. I had visited the 
family, but did not think it proper to make any enquiries respecting 
the Doctor’s opinion, or conversation. Abroad it was agreed that the 
Dr imputed it to putrid fish belonging to Mr Atwood, near the place 
in which the fever spread. It seems that on 31 May there arrived 
near this place a vessel from Jamaica, & on the homeward passage 
several men died of the yellow fever. The vessel was unladed 
on 1 June, having only a few puncheons of rum on board. The 
people say that all the cloaths belonging to the dead, near to them on 
their sickness were thrown into the sea. The reports of any deaths 
from visits to this vessel are denied by the Health Officers. They 
say that the pilot is living, the inspector living, all reports to the 
contrary not with standing. They say that Capt. Mulberry took all 
the precautions in his power. On the other hand, they say, that 
where this putrid fish was, & the vessel did lay at the same place, 
have been all the instances of mortality, & that there are no fair ex- 
amples of its being conveyed to any persons who have not been 
actually upon the spot. They begin the effects of this malignant 
fever so late as at the 15 of June. The Physicians concur in these 
facts. No persons attending the sick have actually suffered. Since 
the 15 of June 26 persons had died at this time, 13 males & 13 fe- 
males. At nine in the evening we left the Town of Newbury Port, 
for Newbury. 

2. We left Newbury, & went into Byfield parish to see the Man- 
ufactory. We were introduced by Mr Perkins* to the Apartments. 
We first reached the house in which this ingenious Mechanic lives, 
on our left. We then came to the new building intended for grist 

*Jacob Perkins. For biographical sketch, see Essex Antiquarian, Vol. II., p. 69-74. 



78 



REV. \\TLLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



& boulting mill, & passing the house for the workmen we reached 
the large manufactory, which stands on a stream emptying into Par- 
ker’s river, which is above a mile from the Academy. Below’ we saw 
the house for dying their w’oolens on the left, & on the right we saw 
the house for sheering, & beyond the Great Manufactory was a 
blacksmith’s Shop. The Manufactory is large, of three upright 
stories, besides a loft. On the lower floor there is a partition. The 
bands pass over a Cylinder moved by the water w’orks, & communi- 
cate with the Nail machines, & pass also through the floor & move 
the Carding Machines above. In the nail manufactory^ we first came 
to the machine for cutting the plates, which did the work very’ ex- 
peditiously. There were four machines for the brads, & then a ham- 
mer for heading of the nails. The whole was done in a masterly 
manner. The second loft w*as occupied by the Carding Machines & 
Jennies, & the Third by the Weavers on one side & the spinners on 
the other. On the upper loft & on the one side of the partition 
below, were deposits for their wool, & yam. In the Sheering House 
we saw many specimens of their Woolen Cloths, which appeared to 
be good. They weave 7 14 wnde & they use altogether the Spring 
shuttles. In sheering they prefer the sheares moved by the right 
hand onward, & commanded by a spring moved by the left, the one 
blade rests, & the other cuts at a considerable angle. 

3. The probability of the infection from the fish was confirmed 
at Newburyport in their minds, by similar facts at Portsmouth, & 
lately at Sandy bay, as well as by the testimony of Dr J. Pringle 
upon the Jail fever. In my absence I was chosen one of the Health 
Committee of Salem, & last evening I was with the Committee. We 
have 20 members including the Selectmen, & are subdivided into 5 
Committees with our days for attendance respectively. 

******** 

Sept. 21, 1796. After dinner took my compass & pencil, & went for 
a walk by the new’ Mills to Beveii}^ to return by Essex Bridge. The 
North Field Bridge has been lately repaired by a Mr Woodkins. 
The Draw no longer rises by Levers & ropes over head, but by bal- 
ances, & a crank below. It appears strong enough. The leaves 
rest against each other & depend on the strength of the work 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



79 



behind them. North-fields do not appear in a very flourishing con- 
dition. The fields belong chiefly to non residents, & the houses are 
occupied not by the most industrious citizens. After we pass the 
cross roads the Negro houses appeared very decent, especially com- 
pared with them in Town. At Mr Gardiner's, in Danvers, we find a 
decent building. The present owner, since his purchase from Brad- 
ish, has much changed the appearance of the house & Land. Below 
at the Bridge, which is handsomely repaired, the mill works go on 
well. On the southern shore all the frames, & sluices are prepared 
for the water works, & on the north side, the foundations are nearly 
complete. Much of the waterworks are finished, such as the water 
wheels, trundles, &c. From this spot I walked to Mr Reed’s* house, 
which fronts south, but is quite north of the top of the hill, & upon 
the descent, & so looses much of the front prospect, & gains nothing 
behind. It was built for a farm house upon 30 acres of Gov. Endi- 
cott’s farm sold by his heirs. Another part of the farm which in- 
cluded the whole neck between Duck & Crane river, is alienated 
with its farm house to Col. Sprague of Salem. A third division on 
the S. W. is yet retained by the heirs of Endicott. We visited this 
man who was of the seventh generation from the Gov. At the 
door we found the Gov.’s dial,t which was in copper, a very fair 
impression, & in the highest order. It was marked ’’William Bow- 
yer, London, Clockmaker, fecit. I. 1630. E.” (the initials of the Gov.’s 
name). On the gnomon on one side Lat. 42, & on the other Salem. 
We entered the house which had nothing to recommend it, & saw 
the old family picture of G. Endicott. Copies have been taken. One 
I have seen in the Senate Chamber & another at Col. Pickman’s, 
Salem. It is hardly to be discovered. The face is the only part, 
which is not entirely gone. The canvas is chiefly bare. We then 
passed into the Cornfield to find the Site of the old Mansion. We 
found that this honse, gone before the memory of any persons living, 
was upon the descent of the hill facing southward. The place of 
the Cellar, which is to be seen is distinguished by an apple Tree 
growing on it. Behind was a building for the family servants, & 
domestic laborers, the place of which is now to be seen. There is a 
*Nathan Read, M. C. 1Now in the museum of the Essex Institute, Salem. 



80 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



fine prospect in front, & a gentle descent to a little creek, in which 
the Gov. kept his Shallop. Tradition says there was a walk to this 
place with damson trees & grape vines so thick that a person might 
walk unobserved. These have all been gone for many years. This 
place was called the Gov. Orchard as he planted early Trees around 
his house. There is only one Tree left, which bears the Sugar Pear, 
& by tradition was planted in 1630. It is in front of the site of the 
House, it rises in three trunks from the ground, & is considerably 
high. It is much decayed at bottom, but the branches at top are 
sound. I brought away some of the pears & engaged such as remain, 
to be brought to my house to send to the Governour of the Common- 
wealth. There is a beautiful spring near Crane river, just before we 
came to the gate on the road. 

I then took leave of Mr Reed, after observing the fine shag bark 
which grew upon his land & which formerly abounded on this farm, 
& passed the New Mills upon the Bridge beyond the Meeting House 
over Porter River the main Branch. At the Bridge I passed into a 
path at the head of a Creek, & soon reached another Creek not far 
from a north Course from the river. At the head of the second 
Creek I passed through some woods on an east course, & found a 
third Creek running nearly up to Rial Side road. Just beyond a 
small brook descends from the southern part of Brown’s Hill. On 
the right of the road was a small burying ground, belonging to the 
Leaches whose farm house had a very decent appearance. Passing 
on & seeing mean houses, some with the old shattered diamond glass, 

I reached the top of the rising ground opposite to Crane neck, hav- 
ing all the country open on this side of the river, land poor & only 
5 Trees in the whole view of the river. 50 years since this parish 
could vie with the southern parish, & the most independant Farmers 
lived on these grounds so celebrated in the early history. After a 
few civilities in Beverly, I returned to Salem & reached it before the 
clock struck 6. 

July 25, 1797. Left Salem early for Boxford, in company with 
Mrs. Porter. We reached Topsfield early enough for Breakfast, & 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



81 



were with Dr. Cleaveland. We then stopped at Revd Huntington’s* 
where we were kindly received. We then passed to Parson Hol- 
yoke’s & found his Son & family well. The infirmities of the Par- 
son take him entirely from his services. We passed into the great 
road at Spafford’s Tavern & crossed to Mr. Perley’s. There are 
seven ponds in this Town. One, back of Perley’s lays nearly east & 
west, widest toward the western end, terminating in a meadow at 
the east end. It must contain 200 acres. I walked on the southern 
side as far as the meadow. The ground is high & uneven, with 
some fine trees, but of poor pasturage. We tarried for the night & 
our Host was very sick while we were with him. 

26. We returned after Breakfast by the great Haverhill road, it 
being both nigher & better. At the burying ground we found a 
new monument erected by the Town in honour of Capt. Wood, who 
has lately deceased & has left 2000 dollars to the Town to assist the 
Grammar School. The stone is a parallelogram at the bottom on 
which is erected a slate stone, in the form of an obelisk, tho’ flat as 
a grave stone. It is ornamented above with marble. There is a 
tomb erecting near it for the same family. The arch is first raised 
in brick & lime & then covered with stone laid in lime of double the 
thickness of the first arch. The Tomb very narrow. 

May 13, 1799. Capt. John Gibaut invited me to go with him upon 
a visit to his Farm & mills in Cape Ann Island. We found the road 
through Cape Ann woods much assisted by the new road but there 
remains 1 & 1/2 mile yet unfinished to remind the traveller what 
that road once was & has lately been. We were told that 300 dol- 
lars had been appropriated by the Town to finish the work, as the 
three Classes of the Lottery were incompetent. We reached the 
Harbour or Town, at one o’clock & passed, after a few compliments, 
to Old Town, where was the Farm we were to visit. The river 
w^hich empties into Squam River, on the west side of that river, 
meets about 1/2 mile below the mills from whence it has a souther- 
ly course beautifully meandering, when the tide is full, through open 

*Rev. Asahel Huntington, father of Mayor Huntington of Salem. 



82 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



ground, & sloping hills, which are a strange contrast to the broken 
ground, and towering rock around. There is a gccd view frcm the 
rising ground opposite to the Farm House at the Mills but a better 
view 1/2 mile upward from the bald rock of Poole's Hill which gives 
a view of Boston & Ipswich Bay & of the adjacent country. The 
Mill pond communicates with Cape Ann pond about three miles 
distant & the tide flows as far as the Fresh Water mills, one mile 
upwards or S. where the fresh streams turn eastward. The mills 
have been thoroughly repaired & a large store is finished upon the 
west side upon a Cobb wharf joining to the Mill Dam. As the river 
runs toward the Town there is a beautiful view up the river of the 
Spires & houses as we approach the Town. After dinner with Capt. 
Smith’s lovely family, who is upon the farm, & in company with Gi- 
baut, we prepared for sailing down Squam river. As the tide was low 
we walked down to the point below the mills where Squam river meets 
the Mill river. At this point we found the remains of Col. Low’s wharf 
which, at an early period, was a place of considerable business, & 
there is an unusual depth of water. Round the point at Gee’s wharf 
in Squam river, 6 fathoms may be found at low water. There is a 
road from the Town to this point but from the change of the place 
of business from the Upper Town, as it is called, to the Harbour, so 
called, it is neglected. In Squam river lay four islands. The larg- 
est are furthest up the River. They are small. Pierce’s & Rhust’s 
are well known. In Squam Harbour a Cape runs inland at the head 
of which stands the Meeting House. Not in very good repair but 
better than at Sandy Bay. It is of two stories, not high, small & 
finished in the plainest manner. We saw the wharf at the Point built 
by Capt. Haraden, now of Salem. Baker’s Orchard, west of the Town, 
was said to be as large as any upon the Island, & it made a good ap- 
pearance in this singular situation. Opposite to Squam was the well 
known Sand Beach, which supplies all the shore with sand for the use 
of families from Boston to Portsmouth. It is best nearest the rocks, 
or upon the most easterly part or N. E. We then having passed Lob- 
ster & Goose coves, to Squam Cove, came in view of the Bar Rocks 
which lay near to Squam Bar & which trends towards Wigwam Point, 
on which we found a Beacon, upon which is hoisted in foul weather a 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



83 



Lantern to aid the Fishermen in passing the Bar. The Lobster Rocks 
go to the Channel and they enter by bringing the Bald Rock between 
the bar and two sharp rocks on the shore & so pass clear of the Lobster 
Rocks. As we opened the coves we had an opportunity of seeing 
the fashion of mooring Boats commonly called Jebacco* Boats be- 
cause built first in that part of Ipswich. They perforate a large 
stone & raise a tree with its roots & stripped of its branches, & then 
slide the stone over the stock of the tree upon the root. The root 
prevents the stone from a seperation & this is carried & sunk in a 
convenient place the top remaining like a post above water. The 
fish houses are at the head of these coves, & from the number of 
sunken trees we may nearly ascertain the number of boats in the 
Cove. About 300 is the number for the whole Island, half of which 
belong to the part called Sandy Bay. From Wigwam point we passed 
to Neck point, which affords two coves, that on the west side be- 
ing called Neck Cove & that on the east side, Hodgkin’s Cove & is con- 
siderable. We then opened Plum Cove & afterward Lane’s Cove & 
after having passed an Head called Gallop’s folly, we opened Gallop’s 
folly Cove. The next point is the extreme of the Cape called Halibut 
point. We then put out into the bay among the wherries which are 
small flat bottom boats & are as numerous as the Jebacco Boats, & 
which in good weather make two fares a day & sometimes take as 
many as five hundred Cod & Haddock. They are rowed cross hand- 
led by one man & even by boys of 10 & 12 years. We succeeded in 
fishing & for the first time I caught several haddock, but the wind 
breezing, I was soon too sick to persevere. We returned at Sun 
down to the Mills & after Tea had more sport at the Mill tail. The 
eels came down in abundance, & the alewives strWmg to ascend being 
tossed back by the water, great numbers were easily taken in a 
scoop net without any labour but of dipping it into the stream. It 
is but lately the alewives have been led into this course, & very 
few of them pass the freshwater mills above the mill tide Pond. 
There has been a vexing Lawsuit upon the subject a few years since 
upon account of the refusal of the privilege & the Claims of the Mills 
being supported, the Town has hitherto neglected to purchase the 
*Chebacco, now the town of Essex. 



84 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



privilege. The grant of the mills was made to a former minister, 
one Emerson, & all the inhabitants, except a few on Jebacco side, 
bound themselves to send their grain to this grist mill. The exempts 
were better accomodated at a nearer place. From the conversation 
we might expect that the Town would soon see their true interest & 
purchase the right of a passage to these fish so important in our 
fishery. These alewives not only draw in the large fish, but 2CC0 
dollars are supposed actually to be expended in Cape Ann for Ale- 
wives as bait from Jebaco & other Towns. 

14. In the morning we prepared to take the Tour of the Cape. 
Capt. Smith took a Mr. Phelps, an Apothecary, in a Chaise, & Capt. 
Gibaut & I rode together in another. We stopped in the Harbour 
to be shaved by a woman named Becky who in due form exercises 
all the functions of a Barber. She has her shop decorated with all 
the pictures which belong to such places of resort, from the meanest 
Black print to the best engraving, with ail the songs which are in the 
taste of the varied multitude of her customers. It was a solitary 
example of a woman in this employment. She shaves well but has 
few attractions of her sex. As soon as we left the Town we had a 
view on the right of Salt Island so memorable by the fate of our 
mariners. It lies at a Small distance from the shore, has a sand 
beach within it & is almost a bald rock of considerable elevation. 
The roughness of the road is much less than formerly & at present 
not to be compared with Squam side. We passed Col. Foster & his 
Son at work in the field about 2 miles from Sandy Bay. Their farm 
is a welcome object amongst the greatest rudeness of nature. Op- 
posite to the pond we stopped in the Road & passed to the right to 
view it. We ascended a bald rock on the western side not far from 
the northern end of the pond, about 40 feet elevation, & here we saw 
the form of it. It rather exceeds half a mile in length. It lies about 
a mile in line from Streightsmouth, & not so much from the Eastern 
Shore of the Island. We could see no places to take bearings on the 
Eastern shore as the Islands were hidden. It lies in length nearly 
north & south. Its form is not very winding upon the eastern side 
except a little at the south end, at which it is narrowest. It then 
trends S. W. unequally till it goes westerly to the outlet which is 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



85 



about 1/3 of its length from the S. end on the western side. It then 
remains of its greatest width for some distance till it becomes more 
narrow at the northern end. Its greatest depth is said to be on the 
N. E. side opposite to the high rock on its W. side from where we 
viewed it, reckoned at 30 feet. It has the Pickerel & perch in great 
abundance & is a pleasant body of water. The land about it is high 
excepting a meadow at the north end, & down this the vallies open 
as far as Streightmouth which is seen in this opening. We passed 
from the pond to Sandy Bay, which, tho’ it has a scattered appear- 
ance while in the Settlement, has from several heights a very pleas- 
ing form from the neighbouring heights. We stopped in the upper 
part of the settlement at Mr. Rollins, a Trader, who was absent up- 
on business. But from his wife we had every attention and a most 
excellent fish dinner. We here saw neatness & simplicity. Her 
husband is a carpenter & has built many houses in the place & is in 
flourishing circumstances. From this house we passed to view the 
settlement stretched along upon several coves & this place has half 
the number of Boats upon the whole Island. It had no houses which 
expressed the wealth of Cape Ann Town, but it had none of the marks 
of poverty which many houses in that place display. The Houses 
are small & of two stories & generally painted. The Doors are com- 
monly on the side so as to afford a good front room & back kitchen, 
with a bed room back of the front entry. Some are double. The 
School house was neat. The Door was at the Eastern end but there 
was a partition between the Doors in the same frame to keep the 
stairs leading above seperated from the room below. There are two 
windows on a side. The roof hipped with a Belfry. The House 
painted green & roof red. The Meeting House is small & the body 
filled with seats, much neglected, roof rotten & open, standing near 
the shore below the School House. Formerly there were ministers 
in all the parishes but at present there is but one in the Island, the 
Revd. E. W. Forbes, in the Harbour or Town, so called. Mr. Rogers 
was formerly in the Upper Town & the meeting house is decorated 
with an handsome steeple but it is going rapidly to decay, having 
been long neglected. A Mr. Wythe & Parsons were at Squam, but 
a separation ensued from their imprudence. They are both living. 



86 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787 “ 1799 . 



At Sandy Bay was a Mr. Cleveland, still living, who has repeatedly 
preached among them. Some from these parishes, visit the small 
house for the Universalists in the harbour, but this Society has no 
stated minister since Mr. Murray removed to Boston. As we pass 
in Sandy Bay down towards Streightsmouth, the Light Houses on Tha- 
cher's Island open on the road before us, & as we went towards 
Streightsmouth were in full view. The longest side of Streights- 
mouth Island is open towards Sandy Bay, the E. part running out- 
wards from shore. The Streight is narrow & has not much water 
at low tide & is winding. A Bluff head terminates the N. end of the 
Island near the shore under which is a little soil to be seen. There 
is a beach upon the shore within the streight & on the shore a Bluff 
opposite to the bluff on the Island. Upon our return we observed 
the very decent appearance of the women & children, which have 
good forms & most florid countenances united with an uncommon 
cleanliness in their dress. At Rollins’ are found some infant speci- 
mens of Taste. Some monumental drawings in memory of some 
deceased Children, done by one Saville, a Schoolmaster, with such 
inscriptions as are adapted to the heart of a parent, & are the best 
tribute to the memory of the good we love. After dinner we took 
our departure for Squam. We nowhere saw Halibut point from 
Sandy Bay, as it was covered by Anderson’s point. As we proceed- 
ed along Pigeon Cove we had a miserable road, but before we reached 
it we had a pleasing view of Pidgeon Hill. A few Trees on the top 
yet remain, but the gentle rising & the central figure of the Hill, as 
well as the verdure everywhere on its sides, was a contrast to the 
rude forms of rocks & declivities which everywhere else appear. 
The Salvages lay off before us & the three white rocks on the eastern 
group which lay before us are coloured by their daily visitants, the 
Birds, to warn the Mariners of their danger. The Mariners speak 
of applying to the Marine Societies of the neighbourhood to assist 
them in raising a Monument upon Pidgeon hill, as the Trees are de- 
caying continually. Upon this road we saw several neat Houses, & 
two neat School Houses of one Story, well painted. Halibut Point 
nowhere presented to the eye as we passed in the road. We found 
it a pile of rocks, split into flat stones of all dimentions. They seem 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



87 



to invite for every use. But they can seldom be taken from the 
shore on account of the swell, & the roads are too rough to admit 
their removal. Gallop's Folly point beyond has the same kind of 
stones but not in the same preparation for use & split so regulary. 
At Gallop’s Folly we found much loose sand in the hills which we 
had opportunity to examine as we stopped just beyond Mr. Gott’s 
who has a good Farm which has profited from this sand, which has 
been strewed upon his meadows. This Man is an Outre. He was 
formerly employed in a Coasting Vessel but at present is seperated 
from his wife & only Child. He discovered to us the most hospit- 
able temper, but there is a derangement of mind, rather than a cor- 
ruption of heart. He shewed us his farm. He has helped his Sandy 
plains & hills, by the Locust. He has planted the Sassifras & has a 
good Orchard. He showed us his woods in which he has the best 
oak timber on the Island, some of which he is cutting for Ship Tim- 
ber. He has several nurseries of trees. He talks of a Ship yard & 
he has many conveniences on the shore. In a mile from Gott’s we 
reached Squam. This has a scattered & poor appearance. It once 
was much more prosperous than Sandy Bay but is now far surpassed 
by the Inhabitants of Sandy Bay, yet, should the fisheries again re- 
vive, we may hope will again enter into competition with its neigh- 
bours. The road from Squam to Upper Town mills, over the two 
Squam hills, was in a very neglected State & by far the worst of any 
we found upon the Island. It is so easy to pass up the river & the 
distance is so much less that men always in their boats never think 
of stretching 3 miles over the worst roads, when they can sail pleas- 
antly only one mile. Before Sundown we reached our home at the 
Mills having completed what is called the Tour of the Cape in the 
distance of 15 miles as it is reckoned. At leisure examined the Tide 
Mill, & found few improvements in the construction. The water 
wheel is upon the new plan of side boards & flats instead of the old 
floats tunnelled upon shafts. The rounds in the Lantern were short 
& not large enough. The Lantern was large enough. The Shoot 
was open & the clack was by iron claps on wood instead of open 
iron, & the spout was short & trough narrow. At the mills they 
have frequently caught a fish which they have not preserved but 



88 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787~1799. 



which the Sailors thought like the Skip jack tho’ smaller. I have 
asked to see one when taken in Autumn. 

15. This day we agreed to visit in the Town & to dine with our 
Companion Mr. Phelps. We reached the Harbour at 11 o’clock. 
Our first visit was to the New Ship Yard. They have never yet built 
ships of great Burden. The first attempt by Col. Pierce engaged 
much of the public attention. On every road we heard of the enter- 
prise & every man knew how much timber he could spare. The 
first ship heads 76 feet, 27 feet beam & 12 feet hold within the tim- 
bers, to be about three hundred Tons. She is up in her frames al- 
ready. As much talk has been made of Dock Yards. Cape Ann 
think they can afford a convenient one in a Cove at the head of their 
Harbour, within 5 pound island. Their claims are not the meanest 
which will be advanced. 20 feet of water can easily be had. The 
Cove is large enough and the entrance small & the position of the 
Cape is the best in our Bay, to be ready for Sea. Near the Cove is a 
perpetual spring which is conveyed in a wooden spout so as readily 
to afford any quantity of the purest water. A constant stream fills 
the spout & wastes into the Sea. There are two Rope walks in the 
Town. One in Middle street, not far eastward of the Meeting House, 
belonging to Beach, & another in the lower part of the Town, form- 
erly Seargeant’s now Plummer’s. From the Ships we went to the 
Bank. It is a building in Front Street, of one Story. We descended 
into the vault which is formed of the largest stone which can be 
easily transported & it is formed in the cavity of a rock. It is small 
but more secure everywhere than at the door. The back room of 
the Bank is a Lawyer’s office and it is kept by Mr. John Rowe, their 
present Representative. Towards the entrance of the Town is the 
New School house, of two apartments, one on each story, with a 
Cupola. And behind the Meeting House is the Proprietor’s School 
which has two fronts & has also a Cupola & two Doors under the 
same frame. A Mr. Black, now in Gloucester, proposes to open an 
Academy & to unite his labours with two young gentlem.en who are 
to teach writing & arithmetic. Messieurs. Saville & Woods. It is 
said that Mr. Black has engaged the School, but that the plan of an 
Academy will not probably succeed. As we passed along we found 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



89 



the Minister directing the plowing of a spot of land adjoining to an 
house left him by an antiquated Irish midwife, who died in the Town. 
We visited Mr. D. Rogers, who has long been a man of influence in 
the Town, & paid our respects to his Son John Gorham Rogers, a 
worthy gentleman. At Table, at Mr. Phelps’, we found his Wife’s 
Sister. They are g. daughters of Mr. Coffin, whose farm is so well 
known opposite to the entrance of Jebacco, & who had lately de- 
ceased. Mrs. Phelps is a worthy and agreable woman & soon formed 
a party for us to go to Eastern point. Mr. Smith, Mr. Phelps, & their 
wives, Mr. Fulger’s wife, Capt. Gibaut & Mrs. Coffin & myself & 
Clementina Beach, made the party. Mrs. Fulger is sister of Miss 
Beach, both fine women. Clementina is a young lady of accomplish- 
ments. We enjoyed ourselves and returned to tea at Mr. Phelps’. 
In Cape Ann they tell us that Hog Island in Jebacco, offers the best Veal 
in the Country, & that their own Springy tho’ Rocky Hills afford 
the best mutton in America. 

16. We had engaged this day to dine with Mr. Fulger. In our 
visit to the Town we had an opportunity to be informed of the great 
increase of new houses. As Squam & Upper Town have decayed, 
the Harbour has been enriched. The military Character of Cape 
Ann is established. On a point of land, they can afford to employ 
the greatest hospitality towards all who visit them, and forming all 
their pleasures among themselves, they must be fond of all social in- 
stitutions. They excell in their parties, in their clubs, & also in their 
Military parades. A late proof has been given. Their Artillery 
House is beyond example in the Country. It is of two Stories. In 
the lower there is all the Arrangement of an Arsenal or a Laboratory. 
Their own Two Brass field pieces, & Two Iron 9 pound, with all the 
apparatus are disposed in the best order. In front is a piazza & the 
building has folding doors which open under it & form a full com- 
munication with it. Over the Piazza is a balustrade & place to ac- 
commodate a large company & the apartment of the second story is 
provided for an hall of entertainment. In front is suspended a Bell 
given to call them to dinner. It has this inscription: Ansottes 
segen ist alles gelocheben. It is friendship which gave the bell in- 
dependently of its being cast in Denmark, or so inscribed. At 



90 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787“1799. 



Dinner we had the Company of Mr. Black who is a Scotchman of 
great pretentions, as was said, but nothing could be ascertained ex- 
cept that he had the education of many travelling Scotchmen. Af- 
ter dinner Mr. Fulger permitted me to examine a Collection of shells 
& was kind enough to present some of them to me. We left his 
amiable family at five o'clock & reached Salem at eight in the even- 
ing, abundantly gratified with our company & amply paid for our 
visit to Cape Ann. How unhappy it is that an air of dissipation 
should appear in so lovely a place in which they could give to them- 
selves any manners they please without any danger of contamination 
from foreign influence & fashions. I gave at Table, being requested, 
’The hospitality of Cape Ann, may it be preserved in our National 
Character.” In no place which I have ever visited can they so easily 
combine for any social pleasure, in no place can they pursue pleasure 
with so little interruption and yet they have all the jealousies, com- 
petitions & even enmities, belonging to little Towns & to human 
Nature. 

June 5, 1799. Rode to Phillips’ Beach with S. C. Found Mr. 
Phillips, aet. 83, living. The House was built for his Grandfather 
in 1660. An ash frame now firm. This part called Quamskutt.* 
His g. g. father was among the first settlers. Everything wears the 
appearance of neglect. A beautiful Ash before the house was planted 
from a walking stick with which he drove homewards his team. They 
still complain of Foxes, Martins, etc. in their woods, tho’ they are 
not so common as the skunks. At Phillips’ I saw an old Cradle much 
resembling that at Boston, in which John Massey the first Male Child 
was rocked. 

6. Went with a party of friends upon invitation to dine with the 
Widow Grafton at Wenham. We amused ourselves with the Ale- 
wives, Lamprey eels & small fish of Wenham pond & after an ele- 
gant social dinner we went to Pleasant pond about 1/2 mile north- 
westward from the meeting house. There is a beautiful prospect 
from the ridge eastward of the pond. The pond is of about 40 acres 
& the approach is beautiful upon the western & especially on the 
* Swampscott. 



REV. WILLIAM BENTLEY IN 1787-1799. 



91 



eastern side. On the north & South are communications with 
Swamps. I went round the pond. After Tea we returned to Salem. 
Having no boats we could not enjoy the fishing which is so good in 
these ponds. The lands near Pleasant pond are like the dungeons, 
are in great hollows, but too much cleared of wood. In the grave- 
yard we found the monument of Revd. Joseph Gerrish who succeed- 
ed to Revd. John Fisk. It has been repaired by the Inhabitants but 
a small part was legible. There are also the monuments of Revd. 
Ward, Warren, & Swain, who have been successively ministers in 
this Town. We found also two of the name of Fisk. One, a Dea- 
con aet. 85, who must have been born in 1644, & a William Fisk, 
later. By this it appears that all Wenham did not probably remove 
to Chelmsford with Revd. John Fisk, & probably he might leave 
some Children upon his Lands in Wenham. Mr. Gerrish's Latin in- 
scription expressed that he was born in Newbury as the word 
Parker appeared, probably educated under Rev. Parker of that place. 



JEAN PIERRE BRISSOT DE WARVILLE IN 1788. 




lHIS French writer was the son of an innkeeper. He studied 



law in Paris and early gained a wide reputation by his pub- 



lished works. In 1788 he founded a society friendly to the 
negro slaves and the same year came to the United States to inquire 
into their condition. Returning to France the next year, he at once 
took an active part in the Revolution. After a time he incurred the 
hostility of Robespierre, was arrested, and after a long imprison- 
ment was guillotined on Oct. 31, 1793. While in America he adopt- 
ed the habits of the Quakers and on his return to France he intro- 
duced the fashion of wearing the hair without powder. His record 
of American travels was published under the following title : Ncu- 
veau Voyage dans les Etats Unis fait en 1 788, 2 vols. Paris, 1 791. An 
English translation was published in London the next year and an 
American edition was issued in 1797 at Boston. 

I left Boston the 2d of October [1788], after dinner with my 
worthy friend Mr. Barrett ; to whom I cannot pay too sincere a trib- 
ute of praise for his amiable qualities, or of gratitude for the read- 
iness he has manifested on all occasions in procuring me information 
on the objects of my research. We slept at Salem, fifteen miles from 
Boston ; an excellent gravelly road, bordered with woods and mead- 
ows. This road pases the fine bridge of Malden, which I mentioned 
before, and the town of Lynn remarkable for the manufacture of 
women’s shoes. It is calculated that more than an hundred thou- 
sand pairs are annually exported from this town. At Reading, not 
far from Lynn, is a similar manufacture of men’s shoes. 

Salem, like all other towns in America, has a printing press and a 
gazette. I read in this gazette the discourse pronounced by M. 
D’Epremenil, when he was arrested in full parliament in Paris. What 
an admirable invention is the press ! it brings all nations acquainted 
with each other, and electerizes all men by the recital of good actions, 
which thus become common to all. This discourse transported the 
daughters of my hostess : D’Epremenil appeared to them a Brutus. 



( 92 ) 



JEAN PIERRE BRISSOT DE WARVILLE IN 1788. 



93 



It was cold and we had a fire in a Franklin stove. These are com- 
mon here, and those chimneys which have them not, are built as de- 
scribed by M. de Crevecoeur : they rarely smoke. 

The mistress of the tavern (Robinson*) was taking tea with her 
daughters ; they invited us to partake with them. I repeat it, we 
have nothing like this in France. It is a general remark thro’ all the 
United States: a tavern-keeper must be a respectable man, his 
daughters are well drest, and have an air of decency and civility. 
We had good provisions, good beds, attentive servants ; neither the 
servants nor the coachman ask any money. It is an excellent prac- 
tice ; for this tax with us not only becomes insupportable on account 
of the persecutions which it occasions, but it gives men an air of 
baseness, and accustoms to the servility of avarice. Salem has a 
considerable commerce to the islands, and a great activity of busi- 
ness by the cod fishery. 

In passing to Beverly, we crossed another excellent wooden bridge. 
The construction of this bridge, and the celerity with which it was 
built, gives a lively idea of the activity and industry of Massachusetts. 
It cost but three thousand pounds ; the toll for an horse and carriage 
is eight pence ; the opening in the middle for the passage of vessels, 
is of a simpler mechanism than that of Charlestown. On the road to 
Beverly I saw a flourishing manufacture of cotton. At Londonderry 
a town chiefly inhabited by Irish, is a considerable manufacture of 
linen. We dined at Newbury with Mr. Tracy, who formerly enjoyed 
a great fortune, and has since been reduced by the failure of different 
enterprises, particularly by a contract to furnish masts for the mar- 
ine of France. The miscarriage of this undertaking, was owing to 
his having employed agents in procuring the first cargo who de- 
ceived him, and sent a parcel of refuse masts that were fit only for 
fire-wood. Though the manner in which Mr. Tracy had been de- 
ceived was sufficiently proved ; yet, for the clerks of the marine at 
Versailles, whose interest it was to decry the American timber, this 
fact was sufficient to enable them to cause it ever after to be rejected. 
And Mr. Tracy’s first cargo was condemned and sold at Havre for 

* The wife of Samuel Robnison who kept the " Sun Tavern," previously kept 
by William Goodhue. 



94 



JEAN PIERRE BRISSOT DE WARVILLE IN 1788. 



250 1. He lives retired ; and with the consolation of his respectable 
wife, supports his misfortunes with dignity and firmness. 

Newbury would be one of the best ports in the United States, were 
it not for a dangerous bar at the entrance. The business of ship- 
building has much declined here. In the year 1772 ninety vessels 
were built here, in 1788 only three. This town stands at the mouth 
of the fine river Merrimack, abounding in fish of different kinds. 
Twenty -four miles of fine road brings you from Newbury to Ports- 
mouth, the capital of New-Hampshire. . . . 

We left Portsmouth on Sunday, and came to dine at Mr. Dalton’s, 
five miles from Newbury, on the Merrimack : this is one of the fine- 
est situations that can be imagined. It presents an agreeable pros- 
pect of seven leagues. This farm is extremely well arranged ; I saw 
on it thirty cows, numbers of sheep, &c. and a well furnished garden. 
Mr. Dalton occupies himself much in gardening, a thing generally 
neglected in America. He has fine grapes, apples, and pears ; but he 
complains that children steal them ; an offence readily pardoned in a 
free country. 

The Americans are not accustomed to what we call grand feasts ; 
they treat strangers as they treat themselves every day, and they 
live well. They say they are not anxious to starve themselves the 
week, in order to gormandize on Sunday. This trait will paint to you 
a people at their ease, who wish not to torment themselves for show. 

Mr. Dalton’s house presented me with the image of a true pa- 
triarchial family, and of great domestic felicity ; it is composed of 
four or five handsome young women, drest with decent simplicity, 
his amiable wife, and his venerable father of eighty years. This 
respectable old man preserves a good memory, a good appetite, and 
takes habitual exercise. He has no wrinkles in his face, which seems 
to be a characteristic of American old age ; at least I have observed it. 

From Mr. Dalton’s we came to Andover, where my companion pre- 
sented me to the respectable pastor of the parish. Dr. Symmes, in 
whom I saw a true model of a minister of religion, purity of morals, 
simplicity in his manner of life, and gentleness of character. He 
cheers his solitude with a respectable wife, by whom he has had 
many children. 



GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1789. 



I N THE summer following his inauguration Washington had a 
severe sickness and was confined to his bed for about six weeks. 
With the idea of regaining his health and also of seeing some- 
thing of the New England States he set off on a tour that extended 
as far as Portsmouth, N. H. He did not pass through Rhode Island 
as that State had not yet come into the Union and technically was 
foreign territory. At Boston, Governor Hancock from a mistaken no- 
tion of precedent tried to compel Washington to make the first formal 
call and finally, when forced by public sentiment to pay his respects 
to the President he went wrapped in flannels and pleading an attack 
of the gout. With this solitary exception he was received every 
where with demonstrations of veneration and affection. His journal 
of this tour was published under the following title : Diary of George 
Washington from 1 789 to 1 791 ; embracing the opening of the first Con- 
gress, and his tours through New England . . . Edited by Benson J. 
Lossing, New York, 1860. 

[Oct. 29, 1789] From Boston, besides the number of citizens which 
accompanied me to Cambridge, and many of them from thence to 
Lynn — the Boston Corps of Horse escorted me to the line between 
Middlesex and Essex County, where a party of Horse, with Genl. 
Titcomb, met me, and conducted me through Marblehead (which is 
4 miles out of the way, but I wanted to see it,) to Salem. 

The chief employment of the People of Marblehead (males) is fish- 
ing; about 110 vessels, and 800 men and boys are engaged in this 
business. Their chief export is fish. About 5000 souls are said to 
be in this place, which has the appearance of antiquity ; the Houses 
are old ; the streets dirty ; and the common people not very clean. 
Before we entered the Town we were met and attended by a Com’e 
till we were handed over to the Select men, who conducted us, salut- 
ed by artillery, into the Town, to the House of a Mrs. Lee, where 
there was a cold collation prepared ; after partaking of which we 
visited the Harbour, their fish flakes for curing fish, &c., and then 
proceeded (first receiving an Address from the Inhabitants) to Salem. 

( 95 ) 



96 



GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1789. 



At the Bridge, 2 miles from this Town, we were also met by a Com- 
mittee, who conducted us by a Brigade of the militia and one or two 
handsome Corps in Uniform, through several of the Streets to the 
Town or Court House, where an Ode in honor of the President was 
sung — an Address presented to him amidst the acclamations of the 
People; after which he was conducted to his Lodgings. Rec’d the 
Compliments of many differt. classes of People, and in the evening, 
between 7 and 8 o’clock, went to an Assembly, where there was at 
least an hundred handsome and well dressed Ladies. Abt. nine I 
returned to my Lodgings. 

The Road from Boston to this place is here and there Stoney, tho’ 
level ; it is very pleasant : from most parts you are in sight of the 
Sea. Meads, arable Land, and Rocky hills are much intermixed — 
the latter chiefly on the left. The Country seems to be in a manner 
entirely stripped of wood. The grazing is good — the Houses stand 
thick. 

After leaving Cambridge, at the distance of 4 miles, we passed 
through Mystick — then Malden — next Lynn, where it is said 175,000 
pairs of shoes (women’s, chiefly) have been made in a year by abt. 
400 workmen. This is only a row of houses, and not very thick, on 
each side of the Road. After passing Lynn you enter Marblehead, 
w’ch is 4 miles from Salem. This latter is a neat Town, and said to 
contain 8 or 9000 Inhabitants. Its exports are chiefly Fish, Lumber, 
and Provisions. They have in the East India Trade at this time 13 
Sail of Vessels. 

Friday [Oct.], 30th. A little after 8 o’clock I set out for Newbury- 
Port ; and in less than 2 miles crossed the Bridge between Salem and 
Beverly, which makes a handsome appearance, and is upon the same 
plan of those over Charles and Mistick Rivers ; excepting that it has 
not foot ways as that of the former has. The length of this bridge 
is 1530 feet, and was built for about £4500, lav/ful money — a price 
inconceivably low in my estimation, as there is 18 feet water in the 
deepest parts of the River over which it is erected. This Bridge is 
larger than that at Charlestown, but shorter by feet than the 

other over Mistick. All of them have drav/ bridges, by which ves- 
sels pass. After passing Beverley, 2 miles, we come to the Cotton 



GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1789. 



97 



Manufactory, which seems to be carrying on with spirit by the Mr. 
Cabbots (principally). 

In this Manufactory they have the new Invented Carding and 
Spinning Machines ; one of the first supplies the work, and four of 
the latter; one of which spins 84 threads at a time by one person. 
The Cotton is prepared for these Machines by being first (lightly) 
drawn to a thr'd, on the common wheel ; there is also another machine 
for doubling and twisting the threads for particular cloths ; this al- 
so does many at a time. For winding the Cotton from the Spindles, 
and preparing it for the warp, there is a Reel which expedites the 
work greatly. A number of Looms (15 or 16) were at work with 
spring shuttles, which do more than d’ble work. In short, the whole 
seemed perfect, and the Cotton stuffs w’ch they turn out, excellent 
of their kind; warp and filling both are now of Cotton. From this 
place, with escorts of Horse, I passed on to Ipswich, about 10 miles; 
at the entrance of which I was met and welcomed by the Select men, 
and received by a Regm’t of Militia. 

At this place I was met by Mr. Dalton and some other Gentlemen 
from Newbury*port ; partook of a cold collation, and proceeded on 
to the last mentioned place, where I was received with much respect 
and parade, about 4 o’clock. 

In the evening there were rockets and some other fireworks' — and 
every other demonstration to welcome me to the Town. This place 
is pleasantly situated on Merrimack River, and appears to have car- 
ried on (here and above) the shipbuilding business to a grt. extent. 
The number of souls is estimated at 5000. 

Saturday [Oct.] 31st. Left Newbury-port a little after 8 o’clock 
(first breakfasting with Mr. Dalton) and to avoid a wider ferry, more 
inconvenient boats, and a piece of heavy sand, we crossed the River 
at Salisbury, two miles above, and near that further about — and in 
three miles came to the line wch. divides the State of Massschusetts 
from that of New Hampshire. Here I took leave of Mr. Dalton and 
many other private Gentlemen who accompanied me ; also of Gen’l 
Titcomb, who met me on the line between Middlesex and Essex 
Counties — Corps of light Horse, and many officers of Militia — and 
was rec’d by the President of the State of New Hampshire — the Vice- 



98 



GEORGE WASHINGTON IN 1789. 



President ; some of the Council — Messrs. Langdon and Wingate of 
the Senate — Colo. Parker, Marshall of the State, and many other re- 
spectable characters; besides several Troops of well cloathed Horse 
in handsome Uniforms, and many officers of the Militia also in hand- 
some (white and red) uniforms of the Manufacture of the State. . . . 

[Wednesday, Nov. 4th]. From hence, passing through Kingstown, 
(6 miles from Exeter) I arrived at Haverhill about half-past two, and 
stayed all night. Walked through the town, which stands at the 
head of the tide of Merrimack River, and in a beautiful part of the 
country. The lands over which I travelled to day, are pretty much 
mixed in places with stone — and the growth with pines — till I came 
near to Haverhill, where they disappeared, and the land had a more 
fertile appearance. The whole were pretty well cultivated, but used 
(principally) for grass and Indian corn. 

In Haverhill is a Duck manufactory, upon a small but ingenious 
scale, under the conduct of CoH. [Blodgett]. 

At this manufactory one small person turns a wheel which em- 
ploys eight spinners, each acting independently of each other, so as 
to occasion no interruption of the rest if any one of them is stopped 
— whereas at the Boston manufactory of this article, each spinner has 
a small girl to turn the wheel. The looms are also somewhat differ- 
ently constructed from those of the common kind, and upon an im- 
proved plan. The inhabit’ts of this small village were well disposed 
to welcome me to it by every demonstration which could evince their 
joy. 

Thursday, [Nov.] 5th. About sunrise I set out, crossing the Mer- 
rimack River at the town, over to the township of Bradford, and in 
nine miles came to Abbot’s tavern, in Andover, where we breakfast- 
ed, and met with much attention from Mr. Phillips, President of the 
Senate of Massachusetts, who accompained us through Bellariki to 
Lexington, where I dined, and viewed the spot on which the first 
blood was spilt in the dispute with Great Britain, on the 19th of 
April, 1775. 



JOHN DRAYTON IN 1794. 



OHN Drayton was born in South Carolina in 1766 and educated 



at Princeton and in England. He became Governor of South 



Carolina in 1800 and afterwards was a United States Judge for 
that State serving for ten years. He was the author of several works 
including the following : Letters written during a tour through the 
Northern and Eastern States . . . Charleston, 1 794. 

The whole way from Boston to Portsmouth, is a thickly populated, 
and well cultivated country : the road is perhaps one of the finest in 
the United States. You pass from farm to farm, from village to vil- 
lage, and from town to town, in quick succession. Some few miles 
from Boston is a small village called Lynn ; celebrated for the vast 
quantities of shoes made there for exportation. The shoe-maker’s 
shops, are almost equal to the number of dwelling houses in the town. 
The road leads through the towns of Salem, Beverly, and Newbury- 
port : which, for riches and commerce, have a right to be considered 
as some of the most respectable towns in America. 

Two or three miles beyond Newbury-port, is a beautiful wooden 
bridge of one arch, thrown across the Merrimack river: whose length 
is one hundred and sixty feet ; and whose height is forty feet above 
the level of high water. For beauty and strength, it has certainly 
no equal in America : and I doubt whether as a wooden bridge, there 
be any to compare with it elsewhere. The strength of the bridge is 
much increased above the common mode in use, by pieces of timber 
placed upon it, and shouldered into each other. They run upon the 
bridge, in three lines ; parrallel with the length of the bridge, and 
with each other; so as to make two distinct passage-ways for carriages. 
These braces, are some feet in height, and are connected on the 
top by cross pieces, affording sufficient room for carriages to pass 
underneath, without inconvenience. It is said, that the upper work 
has as great a tendency to support the weight of the bridge ; as the 
sleepers, upon which it is built. I had not time to stay there longer 
than five minutes ; so must be excused in a sketch which I have taken 
of it : and that was not done upon the spot, but only by recollection. 




( 99 ) 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



T he following account of the principal towns in Essex County 
was written by a trained observer — a man of varied ex- 
perience. A Peer of France, he was deeply interested in ag- 
riculture and the mechanical arts and while in America bought a 
farm in Pennsylvania and spent some time in agricultural experi- 
ments. He was in public life at the outbreak of the French Revolu- 
tion and maintained a moderate attitude until 1792 when he was 
dismissed and wisely removed to England from whence, two years 
later, he came to America. In 1798 he returned to France. He es- 
tablished in Paris the first savings bank and also was influential in 
introducing vaccination into France. His travels in the United States 
are of particular interest for the extended comments on the com- 
merce and development of the country. They were published in 
French, in eight small volumes, in New York in 1797, and translated 
and published in London with the following title : Travels through 

the United States of North America . . . in the years 1795, 1796 and 
1797 . . . London, 1800. 

On the first project I had formed to descend the river St. Lawrence, 
to visit Halifax, and to return into the United States through the 
district of Maine, I intended to visit General Knox, who, with ex- 
quisite politeness, had given me in Philadelphia an invitation to that 
effect, and whose mansion was situated on my way. On my arrival 
I entertained the same idea, although at that time the district of 
Maine lay rather out of my way ; and the repeated proofs of friend- 
ship I received from the General confirmed me in my resolution. I 
accordingly embarked with him for St. George’s River, whither he 
returned after a four months absence. 

The house of the General is situated about two hundred miles from 
Boston, both by land and water. At this time of the year the passage 
is generally made in twenty-four hours ; but peculiar circumstances 
prevented us for three or four days from availing ourselves of the 
favourable wind ; and after these impediments had been removed, 
our captain wished, as soon as possible, to improve the first appear- 

( 100 ) 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



101 



ance of fine weather. This was very trifling indeed, when he set 
sail, for which reason we were scarcely able the first evening to clear 
the mouth of the harbour. On the second day we were forced by a 
thick fog, and strong indication of a heavy storm, to make the bay 
of Cape Ann. These measures of precaution, adopted by our captain, 
of which v/e could not but approve, removed us forty miles out of 
the straight road. As soon as the fog and indication of a storm had 
disappeared, we got again under way ; but meeting with a dead calm, 
we were obliged to come once more to an anchor, within four hundred 
yards of our first anchoring place. The wind generally died away 
early in the morning as well as the afternoon, for which reason we 
reached not the General’s mansion till after a passage of seventy-two 
hours, and after having sailed fifteen miles up St. George’s River. 

The circumstance of our being compelled to put into the bay of 
Cape Ann afforded me an opportunity of seeing the drying of cod 
fish. The whole coast of Massachusetts, and especially of the dis- 
trict of Maine, is inhabited by fishermen, engaged in the fishery on 
the great sand-bank ; they bring all the fish on shore, where they 
receive the last dressing. The fish are washed as soon as they are 
taken out of the water, and laid first in heaps, that the water may 
run off. Then they remain for two or three days exposed to the air, 
after which they are placed on hurdles, about four or five feet in 
breadth, three or four feet above the ground, and as long as the field 
on which they are erected, generally about a hundred or a hundred 
and twenty yards. The fish are laid on these hurdles, first three or 
four, one upon another, and, after they have lost most of the water, 
every fish separately; they are frequently turned that they may get 
thoroughly dry, which generally takes five or six days ; at last they 
are packed in cases, pressed down, and exported either to the West 
India Islands, or Europe. 

The best fish, that is, those which, caught in the first fishing months, 
are superiour to the rest from their being dried more slowly, are 
sent to Spain. They are sold at double the price of those, which are 
caught later in the year, when the heat is more intense, and which 
are exported either to the West Indies, or some part of the continent. 
But from among the fish of the better sort, which are destined for 



102 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT~LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



Spain, the best are picked out for those inhabitants of Massachusetts, 
who are peculiarly fond of salt stock fish ; and there are in that county 
few families, who have not, every Saturday, a good dish of stock fish 
on their table. As to the usual partition of the proceeds of the fishery, 
it is as follows, viz. 

The ships employed in the fishery, which are generally of seventy 
tuns burthen, are navigated by a master, seven seamen, and a boy. 
The owner of the ship has a fourth of the profit ; the dryer on the 
coast an eighth, and the rest is divided among the master and sea- 
men, in proportion to the fish they have caught. The expence for 
candles, wood, bait, and salt is deducted, previously to the partition ; 
every seaman takes care of the fish he has caught. A vessel of sixty 
tons burthen takes upon an average twelve hundred cod fish, which 
are generally worth two dollars and a half per hundred weight, but 
cost at present from five to six dollars. 

The town of Gloucester, which is situated near Cape Ann, employs 
in the fishery, at the great bank, about forty or fifty yachts and brigs. 
These vessels are of the burthen of one hundred or one hundred 
and ten tons ; make in general three voyages in a year, if they com- 
mence fishing in March, and continue until November, when the fish- 
ery terminates. Before the war, the town of Gloucester, though less 
considerable than at present, employed more vessels in the fishery 
than at this time. This decrease, which seems extraordinary, since 
the number of ships built in this port is much greater now than at 
that time, originates from the comparatively greater advantages, 
which the ship-owners derive from trade. But the number of towns, 
which share in the fishery on the great banks, is also more consider- 
able than formerly ; so that although the share of single places in the 
fishery may have decreased within these last fifteen years, yet the 
number of those that share in it has greatly encreased. 

Besides the fishery on the great bank, the coasts of Massachusetts, 
and the district of Maine, furnish also large quantities of stock fish. 
They are neither so large, nor so plentiful, as at the great bank ; yet 
this fishery affords useful employment to a considerable number of 
ships, which proceed only five or six miles from the coast, return 
home every week, and are not exposed to the sam.e danger as ships 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



103 



engaged in the other fishery, which mix their fish with those that are 
caught near Newfoundland. 

The road of Cape Ann lies south-west from the Cape. It is capa- 
cious and safe. On a commanding eminence on the coast, a fort is 
now constructing, which will most effectually protect both the road 
and its entrance. Within the fort a block-house is built, the lower 
part of which serves for a powder-magazine ; and that part, which 
is destined to be inhabited by the garrison, is built with so much care 
that in all probability it will be bomb-proof. 

The town of Gloucester, situated at the bottom of the bay, is pleas- 
ant, though not regular. It contains a number of stores or shops, 
and a considerable proportion of good houses. Like all the other 
small towns around, it has an air of brisk and thriving industry. 

In 1794, commodities to the value of two hundred and twenty 
thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars were exported out of Glou- 
cester ; but its exports for the present year will scarcely amount to 
one hundred and eighty thousand dollars. Its chief trading inter- 
course is with the West Indies. 

We have obtained little new information in the course of our voy- 
age thither. We came on board a vessel belonging to St. George’s 
River, which usually takes in its lading there. The principal com- 
mercial business of the province of Maine consists in the exportation of 
timber to Boston. It is conveyed in small yachts from eighty to a 
hundred and twenty tons burthen; sometimes brigs and schooners are 
employed. The yachts are, however, preferred, because they are light- 
er than the others, and can be navigated by fewer hands. At times 
these yachts will proceed as far as New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, 
Baltimore, or Charlestown. From these places they are always 
freighted back with a new cargo, by which the profits of the voyage 
are increased. From Boston they must return empty, and therefore 
less readily undertake that voyage. The clear profits of a single 
voyage were estimated at sixty-six dollars. One of these vessels 
made, last year, sixteen or seventeen voyages ; and the owner’s neat 
gains for that length of time amounted to between one thousand and 
fifty-six and one thousand one hundred and twelve dollars; while the 
cost of the vessel was from three thousand to three thousand three 



104 DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 

hundred and fifty dollars. When the timber is uncommonly excellent 
in its quality, the profits are greater. The returns are also unusually 
good from cargoes of lime, of which there begins to be abundance 
found in the province of Maine. When the population of this prov- 
ince shall have adequately increased, and its quarries shall be wrought 
in a due proportion, it will then find a very ample source of wealth 
in the exportation of its lime stone. 

The vessel in which we sailed was dirty and incommodious. Like 
the rest of this craft, it was fitted for the reception of goods, not for 
the accommodation of a few casual passengers. But the attentions 
of the captain made everything as agreeable as possible to us. It is 
to be observed, that these vessels very often go without a lading, and 
many times return even without ballast; a condition of the ship, which 
makes prudence and vigilence in the captain peculiarly necessary. 
Our food, during the short voyage, consisted chiefly of fish, which 
we caught ourselves. Of these there is on the coast such plenty, that 
before your line has been cast two minutes, you are sure to have a 
fish on your hook, which wfill weigh, at the least, two pounds, often 
not less thon twelve pounds. They are of the species of the cod fish 
and the halibut ; the cod fish are larger, and worse in their flavour 
than those of many other places. . . . 

Before you arrive at Newbury Port, you have to cross the river 
Merrimack, by means of a bridge, which, prior to the building of that 
thrown over the Piscataqua, was considered as the most elegant in 
all New England. It is at least shorter by one third than the latter, 
and the arch, which measures only one hundred and thirty feet in 
width, is supported by a crooked piece of tim.ber, m.easuring twenty 
feet, which gives the bridge, at first sight, a heavy appearance. Along 
the banks of the river, before you come to this bridge, lies Newbury 
new town, a pretty extensive village, where a number of ships are 
built, which are afterwards equipped, and freighted in Newbury Port. 
Mr. Langdon had furnished me with a letter of recommendation to 
his friend JACKSON, from whom I flattered myself with the hopes 
of receiving some information relative to the town and its trade. 
But this gentleman being absent in Boston, I was obliged to content 
myself with the intelligence I could procure from some inhabitants. 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



105 



whom I found in the inn. I learnt that the trade of this town, which, 
as well as that of Portsmouth, had decayed very much since the con- 
clusion of the war, was, for the last years, considerably on the ad- 
vance ; that it was of the same nature with that carried on at Ports- 
mouth, and other parts of Massachusetts ; that the quantity of ton- 
nage now employed by this town, amounted to sixteen thousand tons ; 
that the exports were valued, in 1791, at two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand one hundred and ninety-three dollars ; in 1792, at two hundred 
and seventy-three thousand five hundred and forty-three dollars ; 
in 1794, at four hundred and ninety-five thousand four hundred and 
five dollars ; in 1795, at four hundred and ten thousand five hundred 
and eighty-six dollars; that it has very few fishermen; that the har- 
bour and moorings are good, safe, and deep, the quays commodious 
and very extensive. The town is almost as large as Portsmouth. 
Unfortunately there is a shoal of quicksands at the entrance of the 
haven, which obstructs the navigation two or three times in the 
course of the year. To guard against the mischief, which other- 
wise might befall vessels, that have made long voyages, two light- 
houses have been erected on the coast, one of which is moveable, 
and capable of being always stationed behind the other, according 
to the actual situation of the pass. By steering their course direct 
against that point, at which the second light-house is concealed be- 
hind the first, vessels are enabled to sail day and night into the har- 
bour, without running the risk of driving on the sand banks. 

Newbury Port is built on the river Merrimack. It has ten public 
schools. A society of inhabitants of the town, known by the name 
of the Sea Company, have established a very benevolent institution, 
consisting of several small houses on Plumb Island, which lies in the 
mouth of the river, where persons, who have suffered ship-wreck, find 
some provisions, fire-wood, and other articles of immediate necessity. 

Newbury Port carries on a considerable trade with the Antilles, 
and receives molasses in return, which keeps from eight to ten boiling- 
houses in employ. There are likewise some breweries in the town, 
and a very large nail manufactory, which appeared to me to be very 
skilfully conducted. Newbury Port contains about four thousand 
inhabitants. 



106 DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 

The road from Portsmouth to Boston is one continued series of 
houses, shop-booths, small manufactories and villages. It is an un- 
interrupted garden. The road is in every part better than any I 
have ever seen in America. It would be considered a delightful 
road, even in the most beautiful districts of France and England. 

Ipswich, one of the most considerable villages on this road, is sit- 
uated on a river, to which it gives name, and on which some ships 
are built. This small harbour participates in the large trade carried 
on with Massachusetts, but not so extensively at present, as in for- 
mer years. Flax is pretty abundantly cultivated in all districts of 
the province, and seems to thrive well. But it is said to be in great- 
er abundance at a greater distance from the coast, at least every 
where more so than hemp. 

Beverley is another small neat village, through which the road 
passes to Boston. Its harbour lies on the South River. It is situat- 
ed on a peninsula formed by that and the North River. The trade of 
this village is confined entirely to stock-fish, in which branch forty 
vessels are employed. The fish are cured in the village itself, which 
renders it very unpleasant to pass through. The number of vessels, 
which sail from this port to Europe or the colonies, is not considerable. 
Salem engrosses almost the whole trade. 

Salem is one of the handsomest small towns in the United States, 
and is separated from Beverley only by a bridge, fifteen hundred feet 
in length. The number of its inhabitants, which increases yearly, 
amounts to ten thousand. The town, in reference to its trade, ranks 
with those of the sixth rank in America, and with those of the second 
rank in Massachusetts. The uncommonly active and enterprising 
spirit of its inhabitants is the sole reason which can be ascribed for 
the great extent and rapid progress of its trade. This town has no 
cultivated land behind it to supply its exports, which in America is 
with justice considered as one of the most essential articles of com- 
merce. Its haven is but small, at ebb the quays are dry, and vessels 
of a larger size must even, at high water, unload a part of their cargo, 
in order to be able to reach these quays. Yet, notwithstanding these 
inconveniences, the annual freightage from this port exceeds twenty 
thousand tons. The vessels employed in this service sail to all parts of 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT“LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



107 



the globe; twelve of them, for instance, are engaged in the East India 
trade, one of which arrived from Calcutta the day prior to my entering 
the town, after an absence of nine months and twelve days, of which 
thirty-two days were passed at Calcutta. The number of vessels, 
constituting the above mentioned rate of twenty thousand tons, 
amounts to one hundred and fifty, one hundred of which are in the for- 
eign trade, twenty are coasters, and thirty follow the employment of 
fishing. The exports amounted, in 1791, to six hundred and ten thou- 
sand and five dollars ; in 1792, to six hundred and fifty-seven thou- 
sand three hundred and three dollars ; in 1793, to eight hundred and 
twelve thousand and sixty-six dollars ; in 1794, to one million four 
hundred and fifty-two thousand four hundred and eleven dollars ; in 
1795, to one million five hundred and four thousand five hundred 
and eleven dollars. As Salem and Beverley have only one custom- 
house in common for both places, the exports from the latter form 
a proportion in this calculation, but it is very inconsiderable. 

With the exception of two or three large fortunes of nearly three 
hundred thousand dollars, the opulence of the merchants is not very 
great ; but all the inhabitants find themselves in a flourishing con- 
dition, which is the less subject to a reverse, as the mode of living is 
very frugal, and as luxury is hitherto little known amongst them. 
Hence all the profits acquired by trade, are reimbarked in trade; and 
this accumulation of interest upon interest insures them a large capital, 
by which they are enabled to bear up against any casual losses. The 
major part of the shipping from Salem is freighted from Virginia or 
South Carolina. In these provinces of America, the land yields a 
greater abundance of produce, than the vessels employed in their 
ports will suffice to export. The industry of the northern ports, 
therefore, is here very valuable, the produce being in an inverse ratio 
to the shipping, compared with the southern states. Salem exports, 
however, annually from seven to eight thousand pounds of salt beef, 
and eighteen thousand barrels of fish. This latter article has, for 
some years past, been greatly on the decline, the inhabitants of Salem, 
and the other ports, preferring the wholesale trade as more lucrative. 
The commodities imported from the East and West Indies, form 
likewise a branch of the export trade of this port. Hemp, iron, Rus- 



108 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



sia leather, are emplyed in the coasting trade. Few foreign vessels 
put in here. The inhabitants of Salem say, that their own industry 
leaves no room for the speculations of strangers. 

An European, who fancies that a man cannot be qualified to act 
as a captain of a ship, till he has made a number of voyages, and 
passed through a regular course of study, is not a little surprized, 
when he is informed, that the merchants of Salem entrust their ships 
to young persons, who have frequently been only one year at sea. 
As they have grown up in the business of the compting-house, they 
are perfectly acquainted with the price, the quality, and the sale of 
each different commodity. The first year they are associated with 
a skilful steersmate, and act at once in the capacity of captain and 
supercargo. Their vessels, whatever may be the cause, do not suffer 
ship- wreck more frequently than other ships, which are more cautious- 
ly navigated. In the course of a few years these young people become 
merchants themselves, the captain’s profits being very considerable. 
As they generally are appointed from the families of merchants, they 
receive assistance from their employers. 

The inconveniences which Salem experiences from the shallowness 
of its harbour, secure them against all hostile attacks. The entrance 
to the haven is not in the slightest degree defended, nor is it, indeed, 
capable of defence. 

I was upon terms of great intimacy with Mr. Goodhue, a member 
of the Congress, whom I had seen at Philadelphia. The friendly re- 
ception that gentleman gave me, and the patience with which he re- 
solved my questions, entitled him to the same praise, as indeed all 
the persons are entitled to, whom I met with in the course of my 
long journey. Mr. Goodhue is a man of strong intellect, of very 
plain manners, and is very well informed. In his political principles 
he is a federalist, and of course an advocate for the treaty with Eng- 
land. The town of Salem entertains the same opinion as he does, 
in this respect, chiefly on account of their dread of a war, which they 
consider as the inevitable consequence of the non-ratification of the 
treaty. 

Before I take my leave of Salem, I must remark, that the day 
previous to my departure, a vessel arrived in this port from Bordeaux, 



DUKE DE LA ROCHEFOUCAULT-LIANCOURT IN 1796. 



109 



which brought a great quantity of silver dishes and plates, in pay- 
ment for flour, which had been sold to France. The plate was val- 
ued by weight, and constituted a part of the confiscated property of 
the emigrants. 

Salem is the capital of the county of Essex, and contains, upon an 
average, about nine thousand inhabitants. It is a handsome town, 
the houses are good, small, and neat, and perfectly accord with the 
manner of the inhabitants. The Senate House is a spacious, and 
even elegant building. 

Salem has a sail-cloth manufactory, which employs a great num- 
ber of skilful hands. 

This town is the second settlenjent erected by the Europeans, in 
the Massachusetts. It was begun in 1628, and was the principal 
scene of the cruelties, which ignorance, superstition, and the perse- 
cuting spirit of the priests, and their deluded votaries, inflicted, in 
1692, on the pretended sorcerers. 

On the same bay with Salem lies another small port, which, in re- 
spect to its shipping, is of greater consequence than Beverley. Mar- 
blehead, which is situated in the midst of rocks, trades only in stock 
fish. All the men are so entirely occupied in fishing, that the town, 
to a stranger, who passes through the streets, appears to be solely 
inhabited by women and children, all of whom have a most miser- 
able and wretched appearance. Marblehead has a custom-house, and 
the exports from this place consist in a variety of articles, the value 
of which, in 1794, amounted to one hundred and twenty-four thous- 
and dollars. 

Lynn, which is dependent upon the former place, is another small 
haven, lying nine miles nearer to Boston. It is famous for its shoe 
manufactory. There is scarcely a house, which is not inhabited by 
a shoe-maker ; four hundred thousand pairs, most of the women’s 
shoes, are made here every year. This port carries on no other trade 
than the exportation of shoes to Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, 
from which places a great number are sent over to England. A 
quantity are even exported directly to Europe from Lynn itself. 



ROBERT GILMOR IN 1797. 



R obert Gilmor was a gentleman of large fortune who lived in 
Baltimore, Maryland, where he possessed a gallery of paintings 
and sculpture and a cabinet of minerals and coins. His father 
was a prosperous merchant and the son travelled widely for those 
days. He was only twenty-three years old when he made his tour 
through New England which he illustrated with pen and ink sketches. 
He was famous for his hospitality and during his life kept volumin- 
ous journals which are still preserved by his descendants. He died 
in 1848. His account of travels in Massachusetts was published by 
the Boston Public Library in its Bulletin for April, 1892 under the 
following title : Memorandums made in a tour to the Eastern States in 
the year 1 797, by Robert Gilmor. 

On Thursday afternoon, Mr. Hay, (a fellow boarder) & I took our 
seats in the Salem Stage and at Dark arrived at Salem. We had 
time to visit several places in this town, particularly the wharves, 
where we saw a number of fine vessels. 

This place carries on an extensive commerce & had lately (sent) out 
more East Indiamen than all the rest of the United States together. 
The principal merchant here, Mr Derby, has just built a most superb 
house, more like a palace then the dwelling of an American mer- 
chant. 

In our way to Salem we passed through a number of pretty little 
villages one of which, Lynn, is scarcely inhabited by any but shoe- 
makers. This little town supplies even the Southern States with 
women shoes for exportation. The women work also and we scarce- 
ly passed a house where the trade was not carried on. A woman 
can make four pair a day & a man has been mentioned to me who 
could make double that quantity. 

We left Salem about 7 the next morning in the Portsmouth Stage 
which left Philada (?) * that day. As there was not room for us all, 
and I did not choose to be left behind, I agreed with Mr. Hay to ride 
on the coachman’s box with him alternately for 25 miles, when one 
*Probably means Boston. 



( 110 ) 



ROBERT GILMOR IN 1797. 



Ill 



of the passengers left us. I did not expect to find the seat so agre- 
able but after a little I preferred it to an inside one. After riding 
45 miles through one of the pleasantest countries in the State, we 
got to Portsmouth in the evening and met with 2 gentlemen who 
had boarded with us at Mrs Archibald’s waiting at the inn the stage 
stopped at, to shew us lodgings in the house they put up at. 

As I had omitted bringing any letters to some respectable person 
in Portsmouth, I felt rather awkward when I found from the arrange- 
ment of the stages, I should be obliged to remain here two days. 
The gentlemen who came with me had several letters, by means of 
which they were always in company. A Mr Boyd however hearing 
I had come along with M Hay politely invited me to dine with him 
on Sunday & to join a party on Saturday evening that were going to 
Piscataqua bridge, which is the only one of the kind in America and 
a surprizing work. It’s length is about 2200 feet, including a small 
island which it rests upon in the middle of the river. From a small 
rock to this island a single arch of 240 feet is thrown over the deep- 
est and most rapid part of the river. It is handsomely executed and 
painted white. The arch is not supported by the abutments but by 
braces which are opposed and support it from above. While the 
company were viewing the work I ran about half a mile to the only 
place where I could get a tolerable view for a picture. Then seated 
on a rock I made the sketch at the end of this book, which part I 
allotted for designs of such objects as struck me during my tour and 
which could be comprehended in a slight sketch. 

About dusk it began to rain, and we were obliged to wait till it 
was over, when we rode back in our chaises to Portsmouth in a very 
dark night. This bridge is distant from Ports. 6 1/2 miles. 

On Sunday I dined with Mr Boyd ; in the evening drank tea with 
Mrs Bowman (a lady lately married & very beautiful who was so polite 
as to ask me to visit her while I staid here. She was very agreable 
and kept up the spirits of the company with a great deal of gaiety.) 

At 4 o’clock on Monday afternoon I got into the Stage and returned 
to Boston by the way of Exeter & Haverhill. Both of which are very 
pretty little villages, particularly the latter which is situated very pleas- 
antly on the Banks of the Merrimack. Across this river is thrown 



112 



ROBERT GILMOR IN 1797. 



one of the new constructed bridges like that of Piscataqua, only this 
has 3 arches instead of one, and the work which supports the whole 
is above instead of being just below the bridge. I had time enough 
before dinner to step to the water’s edge and take a sketch of it. 
While I stood there, with my drawing book laid upon a pile of plank 
which happened to be convenient, and intent on my work, I did not 
observe the tide which rose very fast and on looking down perceived 
myself up to my ancles in the river. The water rose so gradually 
that I did not feel it and never suspected that it could have (been) 
the case. 

The next day after leaving Portsmouth I got to Boston in the 
evening and took up my former lodgings at Mrs Archibald’s. 

During this little excursion I had passed thro’ a number of pretty 
villages, and in most places a delightful country. The road by which 
I went lay through all the principal trading towns to the Eastward 
of Boston, and in a great part in sight of the sea. The one by which 
I returned was made for the convenience of a number of principal 
country towns; of course I had a tolerable opportunity of judging 
of the country. 

It is something remarkable that the people of New England in 
general have adopted a number of words in common conversation & 
which they interlard their discourse continually, that are not used 
in the same sense by the other part of America. At Portsmouth in 
New Hampshire particularly I remembered the following. If I ob* 
served such a thing was handsome, they would answer quite hand- 
some. If I asked the way or an opinion, the answer always was pre- 
ceded by I guess, so & so. A handsome man they call a nice man & 
I am frequently asked how long I mean to tarry in such a place, or 
if I made a tarry there. These and some other expressions are com- 
mon to a fault, and are used even by the best informed among some 
of us travellers, and sometimes in company we would fall into the 
same fault from a satirical disposition. 



THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS 
NEIGHBORHOOD 



By Charles Joel Peabody 



I think it is John Burroughs who says in one of his books: — if 
we could have the history of one of these old houses that nestle in 
the valleys or crown the hills of the country side, with an account 
of a family who have occupied it for several generations, we should 
have the history of that section of country in miniature. We could 
trace the development of the country, the progress of manufactures 
and the introduction of all those improvements that make the life of 
today richer and broader than that of the early days. It is with 
this thought in mind that I shall try to tell the story of our house 
on the hill. I am greatly helped to do this by the fact that my 
grandfather who built it kept a record book in which he set down in 
detail the account of the building of the house ; the wages paid the 
workmen ; the sales of farm produce ; the prices paid for groceries ; 
the value of cattle and all the principal events in which he took part. 
We may thus learn, as Burroughs suggests, much of the life of the 
community as it is reflected in this old account book. 

I will give you the history of the house and then events about it. 
The property appears to have been in the Towne family prior to 
Apr. 10, 1777 when Jeremiah Towne deeded it to John Dwinell and 
Cornelius Balch and referred to the part on the north side of the 
road as the homestead estate. Nine days later they deeded it to 
Nathaniel Richardson of Salem who sold it in 1782 to my great- 
grandfather, John Peabody. The old deed mentions ”five certain 
pieces or parcels of land situated in Topsfield, with the buildings 
thereon and the orcharding that thereon is, containing forty-two 
acres be the same more or less.” The deed then proceeds to bound 
the various pieces of land. "The buildings thereon” were a house, 
we do not know how old it then was, and a barn. This house now 
forms the eastern half of our present house. The forty-two acres 
were enlarged about this time by the purchase of a piece of land be- 
longing to a Balch. 

John Peabody bought this house and land for his son John, who 
was my grandfather. He served in the early part of the Revolution- 
ary war and had been married two years before this time. My 

( 113 ) 



114 THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 



great grandfather lived in the house at the corner of the Salem road 
where James Waters used to live and latterly owned by Alden Pea- 
body. This is one of the oldest houses in town. 

John Peabody, Jun. and his wife Lydia, had a large family. The 
names of the children were Nabby, John, Aaron, Hannah, Daniel 
and Lydia who were twins, Joel and David. With this large family 
there was not room enough in the original house so in 1807 my 
grandfather, being prospered in his business, decided to build an ad- 
dition. The front door of the original house was in the western 
corner of the front of the house. There were two windows at the 
right of it. The addition was put on so that the front door would 
be in the middle of the house with two windows on each side. Grand- 
father made a three day’s journey to Quincy with his ox team to get 
some granite blocks for the foundation. The blocks were so long it 
only took two to go the entire width of the house. The four granite 
steps for the front door were obtained at the same time. 

Grandfather kept a careful account of the work done on the house. 
Here are a few quotations from his account book : — 

July 30, 1807. Lane, Calip Rollins and Brown came and began 
to hew my timber. 

Aug. 5. Mr. Wildes came and began the frame with Calip and 
Brown. 

Aug. 14. Got under all the timbers and raised the new end. 

Sept. 1. At noon Gould began on the chimney. 

Sept. 4. Gould finished the chimney. 

The carpenters staid until December when we find under date of 
Dec. 10, ”Lane and Brown went home for good.” 

The front chamber of the new half was used for a spinning and 
weaving room. Here the cloth of the family was made and here the 
hum of the spinning wheel was heard, now superceded by the buzz 
of the sewing machine. 

In 1810 a new barn was built. There was a great gathering at 
the raising. Mr. Zaccheus Gould, the father of the late John H. 
Gould, was present and late in life said to me that it was a great 
occasion. Every man and boy who could be was there. Over fifty 
sat down to the supper that was served afterward. Mr. Gould was 
the last survivor of those who were present. 

Of the children who lived in the house the oldest daughter Nabby, 
married a Wildes. Mr. William H. Wildes is her grandson. The 
oldest son, John, went to Peabody, then South Danvers, where he 
manufactured shoes. He was the father of the late Augustine S. 
Peabody, who lived in this town, and of John Peabody of South Dan- 



THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 115 



vers, so long a partner of Stephen B. Ives, the great lawyer. Aaron 
went into business in Boston where he soon after died. Hannah 
married and moved to Bucksport, Maine, where her descendants 
still live. Daniel died at home. Lydia married and went to New 
Hampshire to live. Joel married and remained at home and carried 
on the farm. The youngest son David, went to Dartmouth College. 
Before he completed his course he went South to tutor the son of a 
Southern gentleman and while there wrote home many letters some 
of which were printed in Topsfield Historical Collections, Vol. XX. 
Returning from the South he finished his college course and then 
entered the ministry and for several years preached at Lynn and 
afterward at Worcester. From Worcester he was suriimoned to a 
professorship at Dartmouth which he accepted and there he died. 

One of the traditions of the family is that when David was at home 
on vacations from college, he often had some essay to prepare. He 
never would read it to the family but would go to the attic and read 
it as forcibly as he could. The family v/ould wait until he v/as well 
started and then would go to the attic door and listen. We may 
imagine the group standing at the foot of the stairs while the young 
orator above was reading with all his might unconscious of their 
presence. It is said that he also rehearsed his first sermons here. 

In 1840 the farm came near being sold. It was bargained for by a 
Salem man whose property was all in a vessel. At the time she 
was on a voyage to the East Indies and when she returned her owner 
expected to buy the farm and enjoy his fortune. He received news 
that his ship reached her destination in safety, had disposed of her 
cargo with great profit and had started on her return. This was 
the last news ever heard of her. As his ship never came in the dis- 
appointed man was obliged to give up his plan to buy the farm. 

About 1843 a small ell was added to the back of the house. It 
was moved from the Dv/inell place. This gave the house its present 
form. Although the outside has never been altered various changes 
have been made within. The rooms have been divided differently 
and some conveniences have been added. But the large oldfashioned 
fireplace, which was built in 1807, is still in the kitchen though it is 
not now used. In the front room in the oldest part of the house the 
cross-beam in the ceiling and the corner posts still remind us of the 
early days. 

From the old record book it appears that my grandfather kept two 
or three horses that often were hired by his neighbors for journeys 
to the neighboring towns. John Balch, a shoemaker, hired a horse 
about once a week to go to Marblehead with the shoes that he had 
made. Often a man would hire a horse to go to mill, sometimes to 



116 THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 

the old Peabody mill on the Ipswich road. On other times horses 
would be hired to go to Danvers, Salem or other towns where busi- 
ness called them. At first the travel was on horse back. On trips 
to the mill the corn would be divided and placed in the ends of the 
bag so that it would balance on the horse’s back. The story is told 
that one man in town always put the corn in one end of the bag and 
a large stone weighing about sixty pounds in the other, whenever 
he went to mill and being asked why he carried the stone replied 
there was no other way to make the bag stay on. He was much as- 
tonished when the miller after a time showed him how to divide the 
corn and preserve the balance. 

In the year 1810 the chaise is mentioned as being let for the vari- 
ous journeys and in 1812 ’'my horse wagon” was used often. It is a 
family tradition that this horse wagon was the second owned in town 
and was in great demand at first, a ride in a wagon then being as 
great a novelty as one in an automobile when they first were known 
among us. The prices paid for these various trips were as follows : 
for a horse to ride to any neighboring town, four cents per mile ; for 
a horse and chaise to Salem, fifty cents ; and at about the rate of six 
cents per mile to other places. The wagon was let without a horse 
fpr two cents per mile. 

The roads of that time were very poor when compared with even 
the poorest we know at the present time. My grandmother told me 
that when she came to the farm in 1782 there were two oak stumps 
in the road between the house and the corner at what is now Salem 
street. One of them was seven feet in diameter and the other was 
five feet so that the road went round them, first to the wall on one 
side and just beyond clear over to the other side. It was easy enough 
with a saddle horse but when the wagon came the stumps were got 
rid of. 

An interesting custom of those days was the barter and trade 
method instead of direct payment of money. Very little money was 
in circulation. The old book contains many accounts where numer- 
ous articles of farm produce and day’s work vrere charged to a neigh- 
bor and offset by articles received from him at the end of the year. 
The account was settled and signed by both men, a balance of a few’ 
shillings or pence being paid if convenient or if not, it was the first 
item of a new account for the next year. One account is of special 
interest for in the year 1814 we find that yarn was sold from the 
farm. In 1816 mention is made of the sale of yards of cloth. 
Sheep always were kept until 1840 and the sale of wool appears in 
small quantities of two or three pounds as a customer might require. 
The sale of meat in those days was a local traffic among the farmers. 



THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 117 



Frequent sales of lamb, mutton, pork, and in winter, of beef, are re- 
corded in the various accounts. 

The prices of labor from 1800 to 1820, in a general way, were one 
dollar per day. The master carpenter who built the house in 1807 was 
paid one dollar and a quarter and his dinner. The journeymen re- 
ceived one dollar per day and the apprentices seventy-five cents. The 
blacksmith who made the nails with which the house was put to- 
gether charged a dollar and a quarter a day for forging, one dollar 
for sharpening and fifty cents was paid for pointing by a boy. Farm 
labor also was a dollar per day for all kinds of work. 

The high cost of living did not perplex men’s minds in those days 
as it does now. My grandfather took boarders from Salem and 
Danvers at two dollars per week for men and one dollar and fifty 
cents for women. It is a tradition in the family that when the turn- 
pike was built my grandmother wanting a little easy money took 
six of the workmen to board at two dollars per week and found to 
her surprize that it was costing two dollars and a half to feed them 
as she planned her meals. In her perplexity she appealed to Doctor 
Cleaveland, the physician and adviser of the countryside. "Ho ! You 
feed them too well,” said he. "I will give you a bill of fare that you 
can make money on.” So he wrote out twenty-one meals that came 
within the limit. She tried it out, the men were satisfied, and she 
made a profit of twenty-five cents per man per week and was happy. 

Some touches of town-life appear in the record. Under date of 
May 20, 1820 we read: — 

Moses Dorman, one of the Overseers of the Poor of said town. Dr. 

To time spent in attending and providing for the funeral of Cesar 



Estey. 

To time 

To 1 qt of West India Rum 
To 1 pint of Wine 
To 1 pound of Shugar 
To Bread 



$1.00 

.28 

.15 



.12 1/2 

.17 



May 30. To myself and team 1/2 day and taking 



care of Ceassers things 



1.25 



To 1 lb Shugar 

To 2 oz tea 

To 1 qt of H Rum 

To 15 crackers 

To 1 qt H Rum 

To 2 lbs bacon 

To Miss Townes assistance 



.12 1/2 
.12 1/2 
.11 

.12 1/2 



.11 

.25 

.50 



118 THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 



May 15. To myself and oxen and wagon 1/2 day 
collecting Ceassers effects and some 
of Phillises furniture and transport- 
ing them to the hotel 1.25 

Other records appear as follows: 

May 20. Eliphalet Skinner to John Peabody Dr. 

To cash paid for recording his power [of attorney] .60 

June 6, 1818. Mr. Daniel Estey to John Peabody Dr. 



To time and expense to Salem in order to find 
and consult Mr Saltonstall Esq. on 
the Case between said Estey and 
his son Richard .50 

June 8. To Journey to Salem, myself and Chaise 1.25 
Sept. 7. To 1/2 day spent in the above business .20 
14-15. To time spent in trying to effect a settle- 
ment between Estey and son Richard 1.25 
To Cash paid to N. Cleaveland for writing .75 

17. To Journey to Salem to carry the money 
and make settlement with Richard 
and his Attorney 1.25 

Nov. 30, 1816. The Town of Topsfield Dr. 

To 1 days work repairing the School house 1.00 

To 28 ft. boards .56 

To 200 shingles .37 

To Lime, sand and hair .56 

To Bricks .56 

To Nails .29 

July 12, 1817. To Town of Topsfield Dr. 

To journey to Salem Myself horse and wagon 

to bring up William Monies and son, 
he having made a complaint 1.50 

To seven yards of Calico for the widow of 

Michael Thomas at 25 a yard 1.75 

To a 2rd hat for Wm Fisk .50 

To 5 yards of Ticking cotton for Nance a Negro 

woman at .30 per yard 1.50 

To a gallon of New Rum for the workmen on 

the Joseph [Towne] Bridge .60 



So we might go on with the old account book but enough has been 
abstracted to show that the life in the old days was not unlike our 



THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 119 



own. That the school and the care of the poor were burdens rest- 
ing on the town then as now. That able men were selected by their 
neighbors to settle disputes and adjust differences. The price of 
most articles has advanced. In a hundred years cattle have increased 
in value three or four times. One appraisal of cows gives the value 
as thirty dollars, cash. Now they taxed at one hundred dollars. 
Sheep were valued at three dollars, now they are fifteen dollars. 
Horses were seventy-five dollars, now two hundred. Pork was eight 
cents a pound, now twenty. Among the usual articles of trade in the 
old book are yarn, homespun cloth, flax, flax seed, hemp, and bees- wax. 

About 1840 an unusual outbreak of bankruptcy attacked our town. 
No less than eight cases were heard and adjusted by my father in 
two years time as recorded on some pages of the old book that my 
grandfather had not used. Whether some new law had been passed 
or some era of speculation had bewitched the town I do not know, 
but turning the leaves of the book I was surprised to find, without 
explanation or comment, the record of the issuance of papers, the ex- 
amination of estates and the legal proceeding in every debtor case. 

A single entry in the account book records the sale of six mulberry 
trees to Israel Rea and thus brings to mind the silkworm industry 
that at one time was thought to afford the opportunity to the women 
of the household to get, if not silk dresses, at least the money to buy 
cotton ones. The white mulberry was the variety cultivated. The 
silk worms were confined on shelves ranged along the side of a room 
with netting placed in front to prevent their escape and were fed 
with the leaves of the mulberry cut fresh from the tree twice a day. 
They would eat much as the gypsy caterpillar does and it was all 
that one person could do to tend them while they were growing, a 
period of about six weeks. After attaining full size they spun co- 
coons, from which the silk was obtained. At the close of the season 
a man came around and bought up the cocoons from farm to farm. 
The industry was short lived, however, as after a year or two a dis- 
ease attacked the worms and destroyed most of them. The price 
received for the cocoons was not enough to pay for the work unless 
a full crop was secured and so passed what was fondly hoped to be 
a light and profitable employment for the daughters of the farmers 
of Topsfield. 

It is apparent from the pages of the old book that the routine of 
the farm work was much the same then as now. Then, however, 
several days each year were spent in the cutting of peat. This in- 
dustry continued until the introduction of coal which began to be 
used by the farmers about the year 1854. The new fuel was much 
cleaner than the peat and required so little labor to secure it that by 



120 THE STORY OF A PEABODY HOUSE AND ITS NEIGHBORHOOD. 



degrees the peat meadows were neglected, the small houses built to 
dry the peat fell into decay, and now the whole industry is forgotten. 

In its day the peat meadow was as essential to the comfort of the 
household as was the wood lot. My grandfather owned two mea- 
dows from which the peat was cut each year. The light peat was 
used to burn in the spring and fall and the hard or heavier quality 
was used in the winter to keep the fire through the night in the fire- 
place. I well remember being told how to fix the fire for that pur- 
pose. The ashes were to be pushed back, the coals allowed to kindle 
to a bright red, then a block of peat about four inches square and 
fifteen to eighteen inches long would be layed on the coals, a second 
piece placed on that and then ashes piled around and over the top. 
It then was safe till morning. When raked open, the fire for the 
day was started with the help of the half-burned peat. The great 
objection to its use was the odor, penetrating and peculiar. It also 
was a dirty fuel, for fine particles would break off as it was brought 
into the house in baskets. 

The peat was cut in the meadow with a long, narrow spade, in 
blocks about four inches in diameter and fifteen to twenty-four inches 
long. When cut these blocks were layed on a wide board at the side 
of the ditch and afterwards were removed to a suitable place to 
dry by an assistant who lifted them with a peculiar fork with spikes 
for teeth, and piled them up to dry for a few weeks when they would 
be housed in a small building standing on the meadow, called the 
”turf house.” As the peat was found in the meadow there would 
be a thick mass of grass roots which was removed with a tool called 
a "topping knife,” a strong blade like a short scythe set in a handle 
at such an angle that the weight of the workman, as well as his 
strength, forced it into the ground. Every farm had its set of these 
tools. As a boy I often heard the talk of the neighbors about the 
different qualities of the peat and well recall the remark of a man 
of picturesque language: — "By tarnation! I had just as soon have a 
sheet of paper to burn as a cord of peat from Wenham casey meadow. 
If you want peat to burn, you go cut it over in Blind Hole where it 
is so good that a piece not bigger than my hat will heat the house 
so hot when its down to zero that my wife has to open all the doors 
and windows.” 

The price for a cord was from five to eight dollars and many who 
could not cut or who did not own peat land bought from neighbors. 
A familiar sight was the ox-team with its load of peat, in the street 
of our Village in those now distant days. 

And now as I close I return to the thought of my opening para- 
graph and ask you to recognize in the history of our house and fam- 
ily a bit of the history of the town and country. 



RECORDS OF MEETINGS OF THE CITIZENS AND 
COMMITTEE OF ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CELEBRATION 
OF THE TWO HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 
SETTLEMENT OF THE TOWN OF TOPSFIELD, 1850. 

Communicated by Leone P. Welch 



Preamble and Resolutions offered and adopted at a Meeting of the 
citizens of Topsfield held at the Academy, February the 4th, 1850. 

Dr. R. A. Merriam chosen Chairman and John G. Hood chosen 
Secretary. 

Preamble 

Whereas — In the history of events, which have transpired, in the 
course of time, in the civilized world, the observance of important 
epochs, have been practised, from time immemorial, and the practice 
is becoming more and more common ; descending from National to 
Municipal and even to individual and personal concernment only : — 
and whereas the very few senior towns around us, have very gener- 
ally commemorated their Bi-centennial birthdays. Clergymen and 
others their half and quarter centenerary settlements : — 

We should be behind the age if we did not notice in some appro- 
priate manner our Two Hundredth Municipal Anniversary. We 
owe it to those who have gone before, as well as to those, who shall 
come after us, no less than to ourselves, who are now enjoying the 
benefits of the very judicious and hardy pioneers of our beloved town. 

Resolutions 

Therefore — Resolved — That the Two Hundredth Anniversary of 
the Incorporation of the Town of Topsfield, happening this year 
A. D. 1850, it is expedient to observe it sometime in the month of 
September with a public celebration and dinner by the Inhabitants. 

Resolved — That in connection with the above resolution, some 
suitable person, native of the town, be invited to prepare and deliver 
an address on the occasion ; — Also other persons connected with 
the town, be requested to prepare poems to be read or sung. 

Resolved — That the Choir of Topsfield be requested to select and 
perform music, from native origin on the occasion. 

( 121 ) 



122 



RECORDS OF THE BI-CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE, 1850. 



Resolved — That a Committee of five be chosen, by ballot, to carry 
into effect the foregoing resolutions, to be called the ’'Committee of 
Arrangements.” 

The foregoing Resolutions, having been adopted by the meeting, 
it was Voted — That a Committee of three be appointed by the Chair- 
man to report the names of persons for a Committee of Arrange- 
ments. 

The Committee reported the names of William N. Cleaveland, 
Royal A. Merriam, John Wright. John Wright declined serving and 
Asa Pingree was appointed and then chosen as Committee of Ar- 
rangements. 

Voted — That at the dinner Ladies be admitted to the table by 
tickets. 

Voted — to adjourn the meeting to Monday eve next the 11th inst. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

A Meeting of the citizens was held at the Academy on Monday 
eve agreeable to adjournment. 

R. A. Merriam, Chairman 
John G. Hood, Secretary 

Voted — That two more be chosen to the Committee of Arrange- 
ments. 

Asa Pingree then declined serving whereupon it was Voted — That 
a Committee be appointed by the Chairman to report the names of 
three persons, who reported — William Munday, John Hood and 
Joseph W. Batchelder who were then chosen. 

Voted — to add two more Committee to the five already chosen and 
Jacob P. Towne and John G. Hood were chosen, thus making the 
Committee of Arrangements consist of seven persons. 

Voted to adjourn sine die. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

1850. A meeting of the Committee of arrangements held at the 
house of John G. Hood on the eve of the 14th inst — an organization 
was made by the choice of R. A. Merriam as Chairman and John G. 
Hood as Secretary of the board. 

Voted to adjourn to Monday eve the 18th of Feb. inst. at the house 
of J. G. Hood. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

The Committee met agreeable to adjournment and it was Voted — 
that the Committee now ballot for a person to deliver an address on 
the occasion of celebrating the contemplated Anniversary of celebrat- 
ing its Incorporation and Nehemiah Cleaveland Esq. of Brooklyn, 



RECORDS OF THE BI-CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE, 1850. 



123 



N, Y. son of the late Nehemiah Cleaveland of Topsfield was chosen 
unanimously to deliver said address. 

Voted — that W. N. Cleaveland extend the invitation in behalf of 
the Committee. 

Voted — that the Committee now ballot for a person to write (and 
if practicable), to deliver a poem on the occasion — and Miss Hannah 
Flagg Gould of Newburyport was unanimously chosen she being a 
daughter of the late Capt. Benjamin Gould who was a native of Tops- 
field and an Officer of the Revolution. 

Voted — that R. A. Merriam extend the invitation in behalf of the 
Committee. 

Voted — that a request be extended to Jacob Hood Esq. of Salem 
for an Original Hymn & music set to it. 

Voted — that a similar request be extended to Rev. George Hood of 
Bath, N. Y., for an original Hymn or Hymns with music set to it or 
them to be sung on the occasion — they both having been natives of 
this town. 

Voted — that John G. Hood extend the invitations in behalf of the 
Committee. 

Voted — That an invitation be extended to the Rev. Josiah Peabody, 
now a Missionary at Ezzroom in Asia for a communication to be 
read on the occasion — he being a native of this town. 

Voted — that Jacob P. Towne extend the invitation in behalf of 
Committee. 

Voted — to adjourn to Thursday eve the 28th of Feb. inst. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

The Committee met agreeable to adjournment — A communication 
was presented from Nehemiah Cleaveland stating that he accepted 
the invitation to deliver the address on the occasion and also wishing 
that the time might be changed to the last week in August. 

Voted — to extend an invitation to Mrs. Sarah D. Peabody, wife of 
Dea. Joel R. Peabody for an Original Ode or Hymn, to be read or 
sung on the occasion. 

Voted—that a List of names be prepared, comprising & containing 
the names of those persons who now reside in other places, but who 
descended from Topsfield. 

Voted — to adjourn to Tuesday eve the 12th of March next at the 
house of John G. Hood. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

The Committee met agreeable to adjournment and it was voted — 
that the Celebration take place on Thursday the 29th day of August 
next. 



124 



RECORDS OF THE BI-CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE, 1850. 



Voted — that a Circular be prepared and printed in which an invita- 
tion shall be extended to those persons who descended from Tops- 
field and now reside in other places. 

1850. The Committee met on the eve of the 18th of March inst. 
A circular being presented by R. A. Merriam for consideration and 
acceptance. 

Voted — that it be accepted and printed. 

Voted — that the public exercises on the occasion commence at 11 
o'clock A. M. Voted to adjourn to Thursday the 28th inst. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

The Committee on the eve of the 28th inst. met — and adjourned to 
April 11th. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

April 11. The Committee met agreeable to the adjournment — 
R. A. Merriam reported that Miss Hannah F. Gould of Newburyport 
declined the request tendered her for a Poem but would write an 
Ode for the occasion. 

Voted — that Mr. Munday make enquiries for what a Dinner can 
be obtained for on the occasion and report at next meeting. 

Voted to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

1850. May 2d. The Committee met and Mr. Munday reported 
that a Dinner would be provided by John Wright of Boston, under a 
'’pavilion” for one dollar pr. ticket. 

Voted — that John G. Hood obtain and superscribe the printed 
"Circulars” to all the absent sons or daughters known. 

Voted — that Messrs Wm. N. Cleaveland and Jos. W. Batchelder be 
a Committee to procure such "Martial Music” for the occasion as 
they may think proper. 

Voted to adjourn. 

JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

May 9. — The Committee met as adjournment. 

Voted — that John G. Hood obtain subscription Books for the Din- 
ner and have them opened ready for signatures at the next meeting 
of Committee. 

Voted — that Subscription Book be sent to some other places for 
signatures. 

Voted — to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

1850. May 16. The Committee met — John G. Hood presented a 
Book for subscriptions for the Dinner tickets and it was opened for 
signatures. 

Voted — that J. P. Towne and R. A. Merriam be a Committee to 



RECORDS OF THE BI-CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE, 1850. 



125 



invite the singing Choirs to perform the sacred music at the celebra- 
tion. Voted to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

May 30. The Committee met — Voted — That an invitation be ex- 
tended to Maj. NatW. Conant now resident at Saco, Maine, to be 
”Chief Marshal” of the day. 

Voted that John G. Hood prepare a device and obtain 1,000 tickets 
for to be sold to subscribers, for dinner. 

Voted to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

June 14. The Committee met — A letter was read from Maj. 
Nath*. Conant accepting the invitation as Marshal. 

Voted to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

1850. July 30. The Committee met — John Wright of Boston was 
present and contracted to provide the Dinner at one dollar pr ticket. 

Voted — that R. A. Merriam and Nehemiah Cleaveland prepare sen- 
timents, and inform the Individuals expected to respond to the same. 

Voted — that W. N. Cleaveland and John G. Hood be a Committee 
to prepare a Programme and submit it at a future meeting. 

Voted — to choose a President for the day and Dr. Elisha Hunting- 
ton of Lowell was chosen. 

Voted — that there be seven Vice Presidents. Resolved — that the 
Committee of Arrangements with the Chairman of the Selectmen be 
them. 

Voted — to appoint marshals for the day and Lemuel H. Gould, 
John K. Cole, Elbridge S. Bixby, Augustine S. Peabody, Thomas K. 
Leach, Thomas L. Lane, Joel Lake, Thomas Gould, Rodney D. Perkins, 
William H. Balch, Wm. E. Kimball and Samuel Todd. 

Voted to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

1850. August 15. The Committee met. Wm. N. Cleaveland and 
John G. Hood presented a Programme for the exercises, which with 
some slight amendments was adopted. 

Voted — that John G. Hood procure or cause to be printed in suit- 
able form. One Thousand Copies of the Order of Exercises for distri- 
bution and one Hundred slips of the Order of Procession. 

Voted — that the parts in the exercises not now assigned, be as- 
signed to the Clergymen expected present. 

Voted — that the Anthem be sung by the Choir, that the Selections 
of scriptures be read by Rev. Mr. Atkinson of the Methodist, that 
the first Hymn be read by the Rev. Mr. Hood, that the Prayer be 
offered by the Rev. Mr. McLoud of the Congregational Society. 

Voted — that the Ode written for the occasion, by Miss Hannah 
Flagg Gould, be read by Benjamin A. Gould Esq. of Boston, her 
brother. 



126 



RECORDS OF THE BI-CENTENNIAL COMMITTEE, 1850. 



Voted — that the Hymn after the Address be read by Rev. Mr. E. 
L. Cleaveland. 

Voted — that the Benediction be given by the Rev. Samuel L. Gould. 

Voted — that the exercises be in the Grove to be called Centennial 
Hill and that a Speaking stand and seats be there erected. 

Voted — to adjourn. JNO. G. HOOD, Sec. 

Aug. 24. Committee met — Mr Wright of Boston present. 

Voted — to sign the contracts for the Dinner. 

Voted — to become obligated to Mr. Wright for five Hundred and 
fifty Dinners. 

Voted — that he become obligated for to furnish Seven Hundred 
and fifty Dinners. Voted — that he erect his Pavillion and set his 
Tables on the Common. 



BI-CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION DINNER, AUG. 29, 1850 

The subscribers hereby agree to take the number of tickets, for 
the dinner on that occasion, (at one dollar each) annexed to their 
names respectively. 

John G. Hood Esq. will furnish subscribers with their tickets at 
any time from June 1st to Aug. 10th at which time all tickets sub- 
scribed for must be taken. May 16th 1850 



Wm. Munday 


15.00 


Samual Clifford 


2.00 


W. N. Cleaveland for 




Chas. Gould 


3.00 


John Cleaveland 


15.00 


Jacob Foster 


2.00 


W. N. Cleaveland 


6.00 


Henry Long 


4.00 


R. A. Merriam 


5.00 


Thos. Moore 


2.00 


J. W. Batchelder 


5.00 


Eben Caswell 


2.00 


J. P. Towne 


5.00 


John Potter 


2.00 


Jno. G. Hood 


5.00 


Joseph Wildes 


4.00 


C. Herrick 


5.00 


Sami C. Todd > 


2.00 


B. P. Adams 


5.00 


Benjm. Kimball 


2.00 


Sami. Adams 


2.00 


Allen Gould, Jur. 


2.00 


W. E. Kimball 


5.00 


Timothy M. Phillips 


2.00 


Thos. Gould 


2.00 


Lucy A. Sanderson 


1.00 


John Parkinson 


2.00 


W. G. Lake 


3.00 


Benja. Perkins 


2.00 


Joseph Towne, Jr. 


2.00 


Edward Hood 


3.00 


Joseph Towne 


2.00 


F. P. Merriam 


2.00 


Joel Lake 


3.00 


D. Bradstreet 


2.00 


Israel Gallup 


2.00 


S* S. McKenzie 


3.00 


Benjm. C. Orne 


3.00 


John Wright 


10.00 


A. P. Averell 


3.00 



Bl-CENTENNIAL DINNER SUBSCRIBERS. 



127 



William Hubbard 


2.00 


A. McLoud 


3.00 


Thos. K. Leach 


3.00 


Isaac N. Averill 


2.00 


Hannah Perkins 


2.00 


Daniel Perkins 


4.00 


Sarah M. Towne 


1.00 


E. R. Perkins 


2.00 


W. P. Gallup 


3.00 


E. B. Peabody 


2.00 


John A. Merrill 


2.00 


Rodney D. Perkins 


2.00 


Isaiah M. Small 


2.00 


Tho. Peabody 


2.00 


William P. Perkins 


2.00 


Cyrus Peabody 


2.00 


Amos Perkins 


2.00 


Joshua Wildes 


1.00 


J. F. Bradstreet 


2.00 


A. W. Smith 


1.00 


J. Lovett 


2.00 


Willard Smith 


2.00 


S. B. Perkins 


2.00 


Elizabeth T. Harris 


1.00 


Frederick Stiles 


2.00 


J. W. Rust 


2.00 


Thos. Perley 


1.00 


A. S. Peabody 


1.00 


A. H. Gould 


2.00 


Jacob Symonds 


1.00 


Francis Gould 


2.00 


John Gould, Sr. 


2.00 


Thos. Munday 


5.00 


Israel D. Elliot 


2.00 


Ansel Gould 


5.00 


Dudley Q. Perkins 


3.00 


R. Phillips, Jr. 


5.00 


Aaron A. Andrews 


2.00 


J. Hersey Reed 


2.00 


J. P. Gould 


2.00 


Nehemiah Perkins, Jr. 


2.00 


Erastus Clarke 


2.00 


E. S. Bixby 


5.00 


W. H. Balch 


4.00 


J. P. Emerson 


2.00 


C. B. Bradstreet 


3.00 


D. E. Kneeland 


1.00 


Henry Towne 


1.00 


L. B. Emerson 


1.00 


Joel R. Peabody 


5.00 


Rich. Phillips 


2.00 


John Peabody 


1.00 


C. P. French 


2.00 


Elisha A. Hood 


2.00 


M. B. Perkins 


1.00 


John Dwinell 


2.00 


John Perley 


1.00 


B. W. Crowninshield 


5.00 


D. H. Andrews 


2.00 


John Gould 


2.00 


A. Browne 


1.00 


Sami. Beckford 


2.00 


John Hood 


3.00 


David G. Perkins 


3.00 


Eben. H. Lake 


1.00 


Henry West 


1.00 


Zaccheus Gould 


6.00 


Asa Bradstreet 


2.00 


Sami Tole 


1.00 


Will. Bradstreet, Jr. 


2.00 


John Phillips 


2.00 


John Bradstreet 


2.00 


George Roberts 


3.00 


Moses Petengall 


2.00 


Samuel Todd 


3.00 


Sami. Gardner 


1.00 


Benj. B. Towne 


1.00 


Robert Lake, Jr. 


2.00 


Dudley Perkins 


3.00 


John Lamson 


5.00 


E. F. Perkins 


2.00 


Robert Lake 


1.00 


Thos. L. Lane 


3.00 


Mary Hood 


2.00 


Nehh Perkins 


2.00 







NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



COPIED FROM SALEM NEWSPAPERS 
BY GEORGE FRANCIS DOW. 



{Continued from Volume XXIV, page 126.) 



Mr. Nehemiah Perkins, of this town, who is bordering on his 80th 
year, took the cars alone and went to Lawrence to visit his son, A. 
C. Perkins, A. B., who is the Principal of the High School in that 
city, and intends to return by the way of Salem, on a visit to his son, 
J. W. Perkins, A. B., who is the Principal of the High School there. 
What makes this event one of interest is that Mr. Perkins has never 
before been in a railroad car, though having lived within the sound 
of them since they passed through the town. He is a man of extra- 
ordinary vigor and activity, and carries on his farm unassisted, ex- 
cepting by one man during the summer and autumn season. He 
could be found every day during the past summer doing a day’s work 
with the scythe and rake, and knows but little of fatigue more than 
most men in the prime of life. In reply to a remark by the writer 
of this, that he was too old to mow, he said he had as soon go through 
his field cutting a swarth as to walk without it. He is found in his 
seat at church almost every Sabbath, going on foot a distance of one 
and one-half mile. He has a daughter, the wife of Rev. A. Pike, who 
is settled as pastor in Sauk Centre, Minn., whom he may visit after 
his return from the present journey to Lawrence and Salem, if he 
likes travelling in the cars. 

Salem Gazette, Jan. 17, 1873. 

The sixtieth birthday of Mr. Ezra Batchelder was celebrated by 
a surprise party of his kindred and friends, on Monday evening, 
January 18th. Some eighty persons participated, and some hours 
were spent in very pleasant festivity. 

Salem Gazette, Jan. 31, 1873. 

Dr. Morran of Boston, has during the past week delivered a course 
of lectures on Scientific and moral questions to a large and interested 

( 128 ) 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



129 



audience. There are in this town quite a number of persons whose 
attentions have been directed to the subjects treated by Dr. Morran, 
and have attained to a knowledge of those sciences which qualifies 
them to understand and appreciate them. Not to particularize, we 
will venture without fear of giving offence to say that Mr. Samuel 
Todd has familiarized himself with the science of geology to a degree 
seldom found in persons of his advantages having devoted a greater 
part of his evenings for forty years to the pursuit of that knowledge. 
His business has been that of a farmer and stone mason, and exca- 
vating the earth for cellars and wells has afforded him an opportun- 
ity of acquainting himself with the different strata of rocks and earth 
as they have fallen under his observation. He has familiarized him- 
self with all of Hugh Miller s theories in geology, as well as of many 
other authors, and is competent to speak or lecture to the acceptance 
of an intelligent and learned audience in this branch of science. Rev. 
Mr. Fitts for more than a year has had classes in botany, geology, 
and natural history, which he has instructed once a week, free of 
cost, and has stimulated a deep interest in these branches of scienti- 
fic subjects. Salem Gazette, Feb. 7, 1873. 

Among its many attractions, Topsfield is fortunate in possessing 
considerable theatrical talent. About ten years ago the ’’Amateur 
Dramatic Club” was organized, which ever since, in aid of charity or 
public improvement, has relieved the monotony of the country winters 
by the presentation of some annual novelty. The club gave another 
of its choice entertainments on Wednesday and Thursday evenings 
of last week. Wednesday evening was fully occupied by a few 
choice tableaux and the exhibition of Mrs. Jarley’s far-famed wax 
works. These figures were so artistically arranged and draperied, 
that it was hard to realize them to be other than the genuine wax 
they purported to be; while they were so clearly and humorously 
described that Dickens himself would have enjoyed the carrying out 
of his fanciful idea. 

On Thursday evening, after a fine representation of wax statuary, 
the farce ”Our Jeminy,” was performed before a large and apprecia- 
tive audience. The stage, scenery, and curtain, were under the 
management of Mr. Floyd, while excellent music was furnished by 
the Haverhill band. The only drawback to the pleasure of the even- 
ing was the condition of the hall, which is dark, low-studded, and 
poorly ventilated. It behooves the good people of Topsfield to be- 
stir themselves and furnish better accommodations for public gather- 
ings, and free themselves from the high charges the managers of the 
present hall think themselves justified in making. 

Salem Gazette, Feb. 21, 1873. 



130 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



Town Finances. — The present town debt of Topsfield is $20,700, 
which is $2500 less than last year; and the cash balance now in the 
hands the treasurer, is a little more than $2000. The ordinary ex- 
penses of the town, the past year, amounted to $15,524.78, as follows: 
Schools, $1358.82; repairs on highway, bridges, and new streets, 
$2456.53; pathing snow, $297.19 ; abatement of taxes, $145.86 ; barn 
and repairs on almshouse $2816.73 ; notes and loan paid, $2500.00 ; 
overseer’s department, $1324.13; state aid, $812.00 ; interest paid, 
$1063.50 ; town officers, $512.17; state tax, $1120.00 ; county tax, 
$769.40 ; miscellaneous expenses, $348.45. 

Salem Gazette, Feb. 28, 1873. 

At the annual town meeting held Tuesday, March 4, the following 
town officers were chosen : 

Moderator — Samuel Todd ; Town Clerk — Jacob P. Towne ; Treas- 
urer — J. Porter Gould ; Selectmen — Dudley Bradstreet, A. H. Gould, 
S. D. Hood ; Overseers of the Poor — D. Bradstreet, John H. Potter, 
M. B. Perkins; Assessors — Andrew Gould, S. D. Hood, J. Balch ; 
Constables — H. W. Lake, James Wilson, J. C. P. Floyd ; 1 Road Com- 
missioner 3 yrs — David Clarke; 2 School Committee 3 yrs — Dudley 
Bradstreet, Jacob A. Towne; Fish Committee — S. S. McKenzie, 
William Locke, Samuel Todd, James Wilson, Samuel Clarke; Fence 
Viewers — Samuel Clarke, James Wilson, Samuel Todd ; Committee 
to Build Town Hall — C. Herrick, J. Bailey, Ezra Towne, D. Bradstreet 
J. H. Potter, W. E. Kimball, J. W. Batchelder. 

The town voted to build a hall during the present year, the ex- 
pense not to exceed $13,000, to be erected on the Common near the 
Congregational Church. $12,000 voted to be raised for the current 
expenses during the year. It is hoped that a clock will be in readi- 
ness by certain parties when the hall is completed, $300 already 
having been raised for that purpose. 

Salem Gazette, March 7, 1873. 

LINEBROOK PARISH, IPSWICH. 

When a native of the parish is asked where he was born, it is with 
a little sense of mental reservation that he answers, "in Ipswich,” for 
"down to Ipsidge,” (and why not, if Greenwich is Grinidge?) he has 
always heard and said, just as he in common with the townspeople have 
said, "down to Salem,” or with an odd change of the adverb, "up to 
Boston.” From present appearances I fancy the town will have to 
grow up to the parish, for that shows not the least sign of coming 
down to the town. At any rate "it stands upon the order of its go- 
ing,” having remained almost stationary for thirty years at least. 
But a few persons may be left in the county who never heard of 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



131 



Linebrook. Its other name, Firetown, conferred in former times, 
as they say, on account of frequent fires in the woods therein con- 
tained, is rejected by the inhabitants; but it is quite euphonious and 
even poetic, compared with names of other localities in Ipswich — 
names not recognized on maps to be sure, any more than Firetown ; 
as Flytown, Hogtown, Hog lane, Pudd’n street, &c. The boys dwell- 
ing on the south side of the stone bridge used, I remember, to be 
assailed with derisive cries of ’’over the river rickety sticks” by ''up 
town” boys. The origin of this classic allusion, like that of Pudd’n 
street, is probably to be found embodied in some pre-historic myth, 
if any one cares to investigate the subject. Why it is then so dis- 
graceful, after all, to be called a Firetowner? for fire suggests pleas- 
ant thoughts in winter, and since nobody ever imagined all the woods 
were burnt up, why its forest shades are a beauty and a rest to the 
eye of the soul in summer. But I have not told where it is yet. It 
constitutes the western part of the town of Ipswich. Take the old 
Boxford road and drive about three miles from Ipswich depot, and 
you come to the brook whence it derives its name, Linebrook. In 
this vicinity are the famous berry pastures, much more frequented 
in former years than now, because, sad to relate, many of those who 
came were not careful always to obey the golden rule, and much 
damage to property wearied out the patience of those who had will- 
ingly allowed law-abiding citizens to come and go at pleasure. 

About three miles from the brook is the church. Orthodox Congre- 
gational, with a strong emphasis on the Orthodox — no laxity of doc- 
trine here. Only a few years ago, they imported an organ of some 
sort, in place of the clarionet and viol that had led the singing ever 
since I could remember. The school house is passed about a quarter 
of a mile before you reach the church, remodelled recently. By and 
by we sha’nT have anything ancient left. 

Quite a number of the Linebrook people have their post office ad- 
dress at Topsfield, about four miles distant over a road that has a 
great deal of up and down hill work about it ; but travelling on it, 
I have seen such glorious sunsets as might have been imported from 
Eden. 

The people being farmers, of course their houses are not placed 
very near together ; but when any one is ill, no matter how far off 
his house may be, the sympathy and substantial aid rendered and 
continued through weeks and months it may be, show how blessed 
a thing is this common human nature of ours, blossoming just when 
and where needful into deeds of self-denying kindness that strength- 
en, comfort and bless. If you wish to know what Linebrook is fam- 
ous for, besides huckleberries, I reply kind hearted and hospitable 



132 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



people, and next, good singers ; for I think any one knowing the 
local history of the place, will agree that there has been a larger 
proportion of such than often falls to the lot of many a more pre- 
tentious locality. This result, not uncommon I fancy in ’’out of the 
way” places, may be partly due to a lack of opportunity for devo- 
tion to the other fine arts ; and may it not also be that getting closer 
to Nature, the youths and maidens catch more of her rhythmic har- 
monies, like the birds? It seems to me that all real artists in music 
must often go to her to listen and take again the key-note, lost in 
the multiform and discordant noises of the town. 

Salem Gazette, March 14, 1873. 

The amount expended for schools the past year, was $1829.25, 
which was slightly in excess of the town appropriation and income 
of the department. The number of children between five and fifteen 
on May 1, 1872, was 217 ; and 203 attended school during the Spring 
term, 193 during the Fall term, and 211 during the Winter term. 
The School Committee, in their annual report, appear to find some- 
thing to contend with in the matter of school management on ac- 
count of the prejudices of parents against teachers. In reference to 
the change of text books, often complained of, they say that certain 
changes are occasionally necessary, as, for instance, in geography, 
where an edition twenty years old of necessity loses its value. The 
Committee utter a truth applicable to other places besides Topsfield, 
when they say the schools suffer from a neglect of the practice of 
writing, to meet which want an evening school was allowed to be 
kept in the Centre School house through the winter. 

Salem Gazette, April 11, 1873. 

FARM FOR SALE 

The Treadwell Farm, beautifully situated upon the Ipswich river 
in Topsfield, Essex County, within five minutes' walk of railroad, 
churches, schools and post office ; surrounded by highly cultivated 
farms and picturesque scenery. This farm was beautified by the 
former owner by the culture of a large number of forest and orna- 
mental trees, together with fruit trees of various kinds, and by him 
bequeathed to the Essex Agricultural Society, whose trustees have 
voted to offer it for sale. The farm contains about 155 acres of 
land, including about 55 acres of fine, level tillage land of easy cul- 
tivation, and about 100 acres of the best pasturage in the county ; 
the whole is fenced by substantial stone wall. — Upon the farm are 
natural cranberry meadows, a large quantity of meadow muck and 
facilities with small expense for fish ponds, partially shaded by beau- 
tiful groves of well grown ornamental trees. The farm has been 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



133 



put in a high state of tilth by the application of more than fifty cords 
of first quality of manure per year for the last seven years. The 
buildings consist of a dwelling house, shed, carriage and store house 
corn barn, piggery and sheep barn, all in fair condition, and also a 
new barn, with a manure cellar, which may well be called a model 
for convenience, style and construction. This affords a rare oppor- 
tunity to the practical farmer, the merchant or professional man 
seeking a healthy, quiet and beautiful country residence at a moder- 
ate price. For further particulars, inquire of A. H. GOULD, Tops- 
field, or of BENJ. P. WARE, Marblehead : Dr. GEO. B. LORING, 
Salem; CHAS. P. PRESTON, Danvers. 

Salem Gazette, April 11, 1873. 

A SHOE MANUFACTORY FOR SALE IN TOPSFIELD 

This Manufactory is five minutes’ walk from the B. & M. R. R., 
School, Post-office and Meeting-house, with facilities for manufactur- 
ing shoes unsurpassed, as workmen can come from adjoining towns 
by cars. This manufactory is new, large, and arranged according 
to the most modern and convenient plans. It is two stories in height. 
The second story has all the conveniences for fitting uppers, and 
capable of accommodating twenty-five machines. The lower rooms 
have all the accomodations for cutting and delivering stock. There 
is a spacious cellar under it capable for storing a large amount of 
leather. The whole arrangements are so new and complete that no 
alterations need be made for immediate commencement of business. 

Also a large and commodious Dwelling House, newly built of the 
best of materials, containing thirteen finished rooms, all painted and 
in thorough condition outside and in, with blinds. 

Also a commodious Barn, fitted for storage of goods, carriages, 
and horses. 

All other necessary outbuildings attached to the premises. 

Also one-third acre of land, with fruit trees and ornamental shrub- 
bery. Both the house and manufactory are supplied with never- 
failing wells of water. The manufactory has sufficient height of 
stud to be put into a dwelling house. Should these premises not be 
sold before Monday, the 28th inst., they will then be sold at public 
auction on that day, at two o’clock P. M. If desired, the manufac- 
tory will be sold at auction separate from the other property, to be 
moved off. 

Cars run from Boston, Lynn, Haverhill, and Newburyport, to ac- 
commodate any who may wish to attend from those cities, and return 
to their homes the same afternoon. 

References — Mr. Merriam, station agent ; B. P. Adams, P. M. ; 
Lorenzo P. Towne. Salem Gazette, April 11, 1873. 



134 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



A blue heron, which is far from a common bird, was brought to 
the Gazette office on Saturday last, by Floyd’s express, for inspection. 
It was a noble creature, six feet across the wings, and five feet from 
tip of the bill to the feet. It was caught in a trap set for mink, by 
Everett Lake. 

Salem Gazette, April 25, 1873. 

As Decoration Day is near at hand it is desired by quite a number of 
the friends of the deceased soldiers who sacrificed their lives for the 
cause of freedom that a greater effort be made this year than formerly 
in visiting the two cemeteries where are laid our soldier dead. We 
have no lodge here of the Grand Army, but have in our midst quite 
a number who are connected with other lodges out of town, and it 
is expected that they cannot be at home on that day. If possible it 
would be pleasant to have them do something towards getting those 
interested together on that day to have an address frcm seme one, 
perhaps music. If they who desire a gathering of this kind would 
make an effort in that direction there would be a large number who 
would be pleased to assist, in making the day profitable to us, and 
all would be pleased to strew flowers over our fallen heroes. Let 
the teachers of the different schools mention it to the children, invit- 
ing them to assist and the number will be quite large and it will be 
pleasant to all assembled to keep fresh in our minds the loved and 
lost by war. 

Salem Gazette, May 16, 1873. 

In Topsfield in the afternoon, the teachers of all the schools, with 
their scholars selected a large array of flowers and gathered in Union 
Hall to unite with others in observing the day. It was thought a 
large number would not be present, but having learned that a band 
of music from Boxford would be present nearly the whole town made 
their appearance in the small hall, and all were greatly pleased with 
the efforts of the Band. Mr. Floyd gave direction and shape to the 
procession. First speaker was Rev. J. A. Fitz, pastor of the Congre- 
gational church, whose remarks were interesting to all. The next 
was a short and very good poem from our longest citizen, C. H. 
Holmes, Esq. Remarks by Rev. S. A. Fuller, pastor M. E. Church — 
brief and appropriate. Prayer. The Post of the Grand Army from 
Georgetown was present, making a beautiful appearance. Their 
presence was owing to the fact that seven of our soldiers are connect- 
ed with that post — E. T. Phillips, A. J. Phillips, E. Fuller, C. H. Clarke, 
O. Gould, H. W. Potter, D. E, Hurd. It is to their praise and efforts 
that the exercises were so successful. Great credit is due to our 
Georgetown comrades for the number present, having so many cem- 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



135 



eteries to visit, and at great distances from each other. In addition 
to the above, a delegation from Byfield favored us with their presence 
in uniform. Everything was a success, and great interest was shown 
in honoring those who died in their country’s service — some buried 
here, and others there — graves unknown — all were remembered. 
May we each year not forget those who sacrificed their lives to per- 
petuate the blessings we enjoy. 

Salem Gazette, May 30, 1873. 

The Cleaveland House and a Picnic There . — Many of those who have 
visited Topsfield remember the old Cleaveland house. Its quaint as- 
pect, with its long piazzas, so broad and low, with the woodbine and 
honey-suckle twining around their trellises ; its heavy porches, its 
pleasant grounds, with the lawn and fountain in front ; the little grove 
and brook, with its rustic bridge, at the foot of the garden ; the 
lovely view from the tent on the hill, — to every one these are familiar. 
The house itself is very ancient ; some parts of it being over two 
hundred and fifty years old. About twenty-five years ago, Mr. John 
Cleaveland, of New York, returned to his native town to make his 
home for the summer months at the old homestead ; and from a plain 
unpretending house, it became, by his good taste and labor, one of 
the most picturesque to be found. It has been until within a few 
years kept in constant repair. Bravely has the old house stood the 
wear of time, and it might to a superficial observer seem strong 
enough for many years; but an old house, like an old garment, must 
finally be cast aside, however reluctantly. There is little economy 
or pleasure in constantly repairing, and never feeling it will pay. 
Mr. Stanwood, the present owner, has concluded to raze the old house, 
to make room for a new one, to be built on the same spot. 

Wednesday, the 23d, the Congregational Sabbath School, of Mal- 
den, of which Mr. S. was librarian, by his kind invitation, came out 
to spend the day picnic fashion. When the train from Boston arrived, 
two hundred and twenty-five made their appearance. ”My carriage 
will meet you at the depot, and those who wish can ride,” said Mr. 
S. to them. The carriage was a yoke of oxen and large hay wagon, 
trimmed with green and the American flag. When the company ar- 
rived on the grounds, they found plenty of amusements, consisting 
of croquet, swinging, arbors, etc. The day was fine, and every one 
seemed in like spirits. Seats were provided both indoors and around 
the grounds in profusion. In the large cool rooms the tables were 
set for refreshments. As Mr. S. still occupies the house he previous- 
ly purchased, they had the whole of the old house to range in. Merry 
shouts of laughter and glad voices made music in the air. As the 
afternoon drew to a close, they all gathered on the lawn in front to 



136 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



sing their farewell songs, and to thank the hospitable owner for the 
days enjoyment, voting it the best picnic. And then they all re- 
turned, leaving the old house again empty and desolate, as many a 
time it had been left before. We thought, as we stood there alone, of 
all those other voices, of the gladsome steps and merry laughs of those 
who had loved the place, silent forever. To-day thy walls rang with 
the songs of mirth ; to-morrow only the ring of the axe, the sound 
of thy doom. Old house, good-bye ; pleasant are our memories of 
thee. 

Salem Gazette, July 25, 1873. 

The Malden boys had a game of base ball with the Topsfield Mo- 
docs, on the common. The game was in favor of the Modocs, 16 to 
6. All had a good time, and it is hoped that every one was favor- 
ably impressed with the visit here, and it is to be hoped that it will 
not be the last time of their coming. While waiting for the train, 
some fine music was listened to. Modoc. 

Salem Gazette, July 25, 1873. 

GEORGETOWN 

Sudden death of a respected citizen. — Mr. Elisha A. Hood, well and 
favorably known to most of the people of this community, as a milk 
and produce dealer, died very suddenly at the residence of Mr. Israel 
Herrick, in Boxford, on Wednesday evening the 30th. Mr. Hood 
had visited Boxford for the purpose of carrying a daughter, and was 
returning apparently in his usual health, about nine o’clock the pre- 
vious evening and had passed a small party of townmen, consisting 
of Messrs. Henry C. Bixby, and B. L. R. Perkins, exchanging pleas- 
ant salutations. When about twenty rods in advance, Mr. H. was 
heard to utter a cry ; the two gentlemen rushed to his assistance, 
and found him leaning over the dasher of his wagon, in a rigid and 
partially unconscious state. Restoratives were applied, which seemed 
to revive him for a moment, after which he was taken to the house 
of Mr. Herrick where he died in a few hours. Dr. Root of George- 
town was called who pronounced the disease a form of apoplexy. 
The remains never returned to Georgetown, but were taken to Tops- 
field, his native place, the day following, for interment, services be- 
ing held in the Congregational church. 

Salem Gazette, August 1, 1873. 

On Saturday evening, Aug. 9, the daughter of Mr. A. W. Webster, 
who resides in this town, and is a wholesale confectioner in Boston, 
came very near finding a watery grave, some half a mile east of the 
turnpike bridge, in the Ipswich river. She was rescued about 8 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



137 



o’clock in the evening, by W. P. Walsh, F. Pierce, and O. B. Pool. 
They have the thanks of the entire community for their prompt ef- 
forts in saving her life, which in a few moments more must have 
ended, for when discovered she was unconscious. The cause of the 
accident it is supposed was the upsetting or turning of the boat. 
Miss Webster is about sixteen years of age. 

During the camp meeting at Hamilton beginning Aug. 19, Messrs. 
C. J. P. Floyd and J. W. Beal are going to run an express leaving 
Topsfield at 8 and 12.30, and the Grove on the return at 5 and 9 in 
the afternoon. 

Salem Gazette, August 8, 1873. 

A match game of ball was played on Saturday, Aug. 30, between 
the Modocs of this town and the Grants of Essex. A victory for 
the Topsfield boys was obtained, by the following score : — Modocs 
23, Grants 8. Charles H. Merrill, of Salem, officiated as umpire, very 
acceptably. Some very fine individual playing was noticed on both 
sides. For the Modocs Messrs. McGuire, Vicory and Smith did good 
service. While Lakeman and Story elicited applause for the Grants. 

Salem Gazette, August 29, 1873. 

The storm this afternoon, (Monday, Sept. 1,) was one of the most 
severe and terrific of the season. The cloud, which came up about 
half past four, covered the whole heavens with blackness. The 
lightning flashed in all directions, and peal after peal followed in 
rapid succession. A valuable horse, belonging to Mr. William A. 
Porter, of Danversport, was tied to a tree in the yard of Mr. B. Jacobs, 
where Mr. Porter’s men were working on his house, and seeing the 
cloud coming up went for the team, and just before reaching it the 
lightning struck the tree and killed the horse, while the men escaped 
unhurt. 

The frequent copious rains which we have had of late have put a 
new face on vegetation. The fall feed is most excellent, and crops 
of hay and grain will be above an average. Our farmers have suc- 
ceeded in getting more than two hundred tons of their river meadow 
hay this year, which, on account of the extreme wet of last year, 
they failed to secure. This is quite an item in the hay crop, as the 
hay on the river meadows is generally of good quality for fodder. 
The apple crop will be almost a failure, while pears are plenty. 

In no previous year have there been so many strangers in this 
town as in this, who have taken board during the summer, and who 
have given life and gaiety in our streets with their pretty turnouts. 
The physicians regard this as a very healthy place for invalids — 



138 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



sufficiently inland to avoid the immediate sea breezes, and not so far 
as to lose the cooling breezes from the eastwardly winds. A single 
instance will illustrate the proof of this. A lady, the wife of one of 
the Essex street, Salem, merchants, who had never weighed a hun- 
dred pounds, went into Mr. Adams’s store, a few days since, and 
tipped the beam of his scales easily at one hundred and seven. 

The Smiths, of Utah, have just caused a very neat free-stone mon- 
ument to be put up in our old burying ground, to the memory of 
their ancestors. Not that the name of Smith will be in danger of 
becoming extinct, but that through this particular branch, Jo, the 
Mormon prophet, is a lineal descendant. 

Salem Gazette, Sept. 5, 1873. 

VALUABLE FARM IN TOPSFIELD AT AUCTION. 

That valuable Farm situated in Topsfield, and formerly known as 
the Batchelder Farm, more recently known as the Brookdale Farm, 
and now occupied by James P. Chandler. Esq. 

Said Farm contains about 100 acres, suitably divided into tillage, 
pasture and woodland, with a good variety of choice fruit trees in 
full bearing condition. 

These buildings are in good order, and consist of a two and a half 
story dwelling house, handsomely painted and blinded, containing 
10 rooms besides milk room and pantry, and is very convenient. 
There is also a large barn on the premises, measuring 40x80 feet, 
with a convenient carriage house. Also, a workshop, tool house 
and hennery, all conveniently arranged. 

The farm is most beautifully located on the Ipswich road and is 
bounded on one side by the Boxford road, and on the other by a run- 
ning brook, and it being only about three quarters of a mile from 
the railroad depot, where four trains pass daily, has many attrac- 
tions for any gentleman doing business in Boston or Salem, and de- 
siring a residence near the railroad ; or the situation is very desir- 
able for a practical farmer. 

On the woodland there are about three hundred cords of Oak and 
Walnut of some thirty-five years growth, in first rate condition. 

Terms easy, as a large portion of the purchase money can remain 
on mortgage if desired. 

Also immediately after the sale of the Farm, will be sold a miscel- 
laneous lot of Farming Tools, Furniture, &c. Also one good cow, 
one ox-wagon, one ox-cart, and a variety of other articles too num- 
erous to mention. 



Salem Gazette, Sept. 5, 1873. 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



139 



The following is a list of the resident tax-payers who pay fifty 
dollars and upwards : — 



B. P. Adams, 


$142.69 


Robert Lake, 


53.30 


Cyrus Averill, 


51.25 


William Locke, 


106.88 


John Bailey, 


315.60 


Est. Henry Long, 


57.47 


Humphrey Balch, 


130.23 


Rev. A. McLoud, 


50.26 


Est. Abraham Balch, 


111.63 


Est. R. A. Merriam, 


73.73 


Ezra Batchelder, 


173.07 


James Manning, 


68.93 


D. Bradstreet, 


103.91 


Est. T. P. Munday, 


79.80 


Mrs. C. B. Bradstreet, 


55.65 


Isaac A. Morgan, 


109.54 


Benjamin Conant, 


83.15 


A. S. Peabody, 


88.90 


Isaac P. Clapp, 


55.90 


Ephraim P. Peabody 


90.82 


David Clarke, 


113.56 


Est. Joel R. Peabody, 


68.07 


James P. Chandler, 


72.37 


Mrs. C. K. Perkins, 


53.01 


Est. John Dwinell, 


92.92 


Nehemiah Perkins, 


58.73 


Wm. P. Gallup, 


69.92 


Moses B. Perkins, 


141.09 


Andrew Gould, 


117.65 


Dudley Perkins 


142.23 


Est. J. P. Gould, 


69.47 


D. Q. Perkins, 


72.77 


A. H. Gould, 


198.23 


Est. David Perkins, 


82.23 


C. Herrick & Co., 


693.12 


Mary S. Perkins, 


75.79 


Charles H. Holmes, 


123.56 


Est. Daniel Perkins, 


92.21 


Wm. H. Hewes, 


106.88 


Richard Phillips, 


79.04 


Benjamin Jacobs, 


60.81 


Thomas W. Pierce, 


1038.11 


Wm. E. Kimball, 


126.03 


Est. Asa Pingree, 


90.72 


Wm. B. Kimball, 


62.80 


Richard Price 


93.20 


Jacob Kinsman, 


50.96 


Price & Shreve, 


139.46 


Est. J. B. Lamson, 


173.98 


Benjamin Poole, 


127.36 


Anna Pingree, 


408.46 


J. Waldo Towne, 


104.35 


Benjamin Pike, 


55.12 


J. P. Towne, 


140.09 


Israel Rea, 


66.94 


David Towne, 


121.18 


Jos. E. Stanwood, 


224.30 


Daniel Towne, 


76.25 


Willard Smith, 


98.10 


Lorenzo P. Towne, 


70.59 


Frederick Stiles, 


61.66 


Richard Ward, 


60.23 


Est. Mary Taylor, 


72.20 


Francis Welch, 


57.31 


J. P. Towne & E. Perkins, 51.30 


Susan Wildes, 


62.70 


Eben W. Towne, 


70.21 


Moses Wildes, 


693.22 


Benjamin B. Towne, 


213.28 


Albert Webster, 


82.68 


Jacob A. Towne, 


69.86 


Israel Wildes, 


73.95 




NON-RESIDENTS 




N. W. Hazen & wife 


113.96 


Mark Haskell, trus., 


53.20 


Sam’l G. Rea, trus.. 


205.29 





Salem Gazette, Sept. 12, 1873. 



140 



NEWSPAPER ITEMS RELATING TO TOPSFIELD. 



I propose in this paper to mention some of the improvements 
which have been made here this season ; but before proceeding de- 
sire to make a few corrections in my last, as I omitted to say that 
we have a most excellent barber in Mr. Chas. Field, and that Misses 
Lucy Foster and Elizabeth Phillips were engaged in dress making. 

Now for the improvements, the most notable of which is that made 
by Mr. Benj. Jacobs who has had his new house enlarged by an ad- 
dition nearly as large as the original, and by a French in place of a 
pitch roof. Mr. J. now has the finest residence and the best location 
in the village ; may he live long to enjoy it. 

Mr. Stanwood, who last spring purchased of Mr. Huse, the old 
Dr. Cleaveland estate, and also the estate of the late Mary Taylor, 
has commenced operations in the improvement of the Cleaveland 
place by removing the old house to a lot on one of our new streets, 
and digging and laying a foundation for a new house near the site 
of the old one. He has made several minor improvement, and pro- 
poses to fit up the old house either to sell or to let. Mr. Huse has 
bought Mr. Jacob Foster’s fine residence on Main street, but as there 
is hardly a chance to improve upon, we do not expect any. We un- 
derstand that Mr. F. contemplates removing from town, and that is 
the reason why we did not mention him as one of our business men ; 
but he still remains with us and is busy at his trade, (carpenter), 
keeping several hands constantly employed. We hope he may yet 
be induced to remain with us, for we can ill afford to lose him. Mr. 
John Potter has built a nice mansard roof cottage, on the Boxford 
road, for Mr. John Fiske, and a fine little cottage for Mr. B. F. De- 
land, on Todd street, and is now engaged with a large force of men 
upon our town house, the foundation being all ready for the frame. 
Mr. John Conrood has moved his house from Ipswich (Linebrook 
Parish) to a lot on Todd street. This is one of our new streets ; it 
was the first one laid out, the first built, and the first built upon. 
These two houses together with Mr. E. Moris’s built two years ago, 
Mr. A. Welch’s built last year, Mr. Jacobs’s built last year and rebuilt 
this season, with the improvements of new fences, paint, &c., on the 
Dr. Merriam estate, give this part of our village a decidedly fresh 
and growing appearance. 

Salem Gazette, Sept. 26, 1873. 

{To be continued.) 



VITAL STATISTICS OF TOPSFIELD, MASS. 



FOR THE YEAR 1920. 



1920. 
Jan. 27. 

Mar. 24. 

Apr. 23. 

June 17. 
June 29. 

July 6. 

July 9. 

July 17. 

July 22. 

Aug. 7. 

Aug. 7. 

Sept. 14. 
Sept. 16. 

Oct. 2. 

Oct. 27. 

Nov. 4. 

Nov. 20. 



BIRTHS. 



Marjorie Helen Miner, dau. of Forrest L. and Dorothy M. (Domey) 
Miner. (Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Burnham, son of Wayland and Florence (Robertson) Burnham. 

(Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Dana Frederick Jordan, son of Harold Frederick and Marion Joseph- 
ine (Killam) Jordan. 

Charley De Luiso, son of John and Camline (Dijianna) De Luiso. 

Ruth Marion Tronerud, dau. of Conrad S. and Viola S. (Durkee) 
Tronerud. (Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Emerson Ray Young, son of Clarence R. and Ruth I. (Miner) Young. 
(Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Ann Hartley Baxter, dau. of Clarence Pennell and Mary Lyons (Hart- 
ley) Baxter. (Born in San Juan, Porto Rico.) 

James Vincent MacDonald, Jr., son of James Vincent and Stella May 
(McKeay) MacDonald. 

Edith Harriet Montgomery, dau. of Joseph and Sarah Reilly (Mitchell) 
Montgomery. 

Mario Paglia Roberto, son of Alphonse and Grazia Maria (Paglia) 
Roberto. 

Ilda Paglia Roberto, dau. of Alphonse and Grazia Maria (Paglia) 
Roberto. 

Paolo Cotoia, son of Carmino and Saveria (Mosca) Cotoia. 

Alice Mary Fuller, dau. of Benjamin A. and Alice L. (Hanson) Fuller. 
(Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Mary Frances Sawyer, dau. of John Colby and Gertrude F. (Butterfield) 
Sawyer. (Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Joseph Randall Maynard, son of Charles A. and Helen G. (Flanders) 
Maynard. 

Eunice Therese Lord, dau. of George A. and Emma A. (Burbank) Lord. 
(Born in Salem Hospital.) 

Prudence Holbrook Wellman, dau. of Sargent Holbrook and MarV 
Conover (Lines) Wellman. (Born in Salem Hospital.) 

( 141 ) 



142 



VITAL STATISTICS FOR 1920. 



1918. 
May 20. 

1920. 
Jan. 20. 

Feb. 1. 
Mar. 25. 
Apr. 4. 
June 1, 
June 17. 
June 18. 
Aug. 22. 
Oct. 20. 
Oct. 20. 



MARRIAGES. 



George L. Walker (Salem), son of Hugh G. and Isabella T. (Rankin) 
Walker. 

Mildred R. Bradstreet (Salem), dau. of Horace D. and Mabelle W. 
(Warner) Bradstreet. (Married in Topsfield.) 



Howard Elmore Towle (Lynn), son of Whilie and Alice G. (Hill) Towle. 

Mabel Prudence Watson (Topsfield), dau. of Fred E. and Hattie E. 
(Fuller) Watson. (Married in Lynn.) 

James Bevlacqua (Haverhill), son of John and Clara (Gardella) Bev- 
lacqua. 

Florence (Chase) Russell (Georgetown), dau. of Frank and Emma 
(Perley) Chase. (Married in Topsfield.) 

Osgood Samuel Richards (Boston), son of Osgood Benjamin and Effie 
(Dykeman) Richards. 

Ruth Florence Ford (Topsfield), dau. of Howard and Isabel (Andrews) 
Ford. (Married in Topsfield.) 

Clarence Henry Kneeland (Topsfield), son of Thomas Jackson and 
Rose Marcena (Gilman) Kneeland. 

Maude Carrie (Guptill) Tucker (Malden), dau. of Frank Stillman and 
Hila Maria (Pinkham) Guptill. (Married in Topsfield.) 

George Francis Dow (Topsfield), son of George Prince and Ada B. 
(Tappan) Dow. 

Alice Goldsmith Waters (Salem), dau. of Andrew Shales and Louise 
Caroline (Goldsmith) Waters. (Married in Salem.) 

Edward Arnstein (Boston), son of Adolph and Gizella (Weismeyer) 
Arnstein. 

Grace Lillian Gould (Boston), dau. of Melvin W. and Mary E. (Smith) 
Gould. (Married in Topsfield.) 

Henry Coe Gardner (New London, Conn.), son of Stephen Ayrault 
and Mary Clark (Sherman) Gardner. 

Lucile Withey (New London, Conn.), dau. of William Ezra and Kate 
Louise (Robinson) Withey. (Married in Topsfield.) 

Ralph Harrison Fuller (Topsfield), son of Joseph and Mary Louisa 
(Peabody) Fuller. 

Bertha Forrest George (Georgetown), dau. of Arthur Lorenzo and 
Sarah Hale (Woodman) George. (Married in Georgetown.) 

George Whalen (Topsfield), son of Andrew and Lizzie (Lockery) 
Whalen. 

Minnie Elizabeth (Levis) Hicks (Newtonville, Mass.), dau. of Joseph 
and Mary Ann (Munro) Levis. (Married in Newtonville.) 

James Angus MacDonald (Topsfield) , son of Alexander Donald and 
Catherine (MacDonald) MacDonald. 

Catherine Annie Macintosh (Salem) , dau. of Hugh and Jane (Cameron) 
Macintosh. (Married in Boston.) 



VITAL STATISTICS FOR 1920. 



143 



Nov. 13. William W. Roberts (Boxford), son of Nathaniel and Anna A. (Wal- 
lace) Roberts. 

Bertha C. ( Waitt) Carter (Boxford) , dau. of Job C. and Betsy T. (Ma- 
son) Waitt. (Married in Topsfield). 

Nov. 27. Saverio Procaccini (Topsfield), son of John and Jennie (Maiella) 
Procaccini. 

Josephine Montecalvo (Providence, R. I.), dau. of Joseph and Sadie 
(Toro) Montecalvo. (Married in Salem.) 

Dec. 11. George Wilmot (Topsfield), son of Woodford I. and Helen (Tingley) 
Wilmot. 

Anna V. Johanson (Topsfield), dau. of August and Ida Johanson. 
(Married in Lynn.) 



DEATHS. 



1920. 



Jan. 


10. 


Jan. 


14. 


Mar. 


4. 


Mar. 


25. 


Mar. 


30. 


Apr. 


12. 


May 


16. 


July 


18. 


Aug. 


1. 


Aug. 


17. 


Aug. 


21. 


Aug. 


30. 


Sept. 


17. 


Sept. 


29. 


Oct. 


1. 


Oct. 


22. 



Charles F. Welch, son of William and Abbie (Dudley) Welch. Aged 
61 yrs., 9 mos., 23 dys. 

Jacob Arthur Towne, son of Jacob and Sarah Towne. Aged 71 yrs., 
8 mos., 1 dy. (Died in Beverly Hospital.) 

George F. Bowser, son of Joseph and Henrietta Bowser. Aged 43 yrs. 
5 mos., 16 dys. 

Burnham, son of Wayland and Florence (Robertson) Burnham. 

Still born. (Died in Salem Hospital.) 

Hester A. Pierce, widow of William Pierce, dau. of Reuben and Edith 
Bowdoin. Aged 85 yrs., 7 mos., 28 dys. (Died in Littleton, Mass.) 
Mary A. Roderick, widow of Domingus Roderick, dau. of Edward and 
Julia K. (MacBeth) Manning. Aged 85 yrs., 2 mos., 9 dys. 

Charles W. Floyd. Aged 68 yrs. (Died in Danvers, Mass.) 

Elizabeth Dole Peabody, dau. of Charles J. and Annie R. (Smith) Pea- 
body. Aged 43 yrs., 9 mos., 6 dys. 

James Vincent McDonald, son of James V. and Stella May (MacKay) 
McDonald. Aged 15 dys. 

Sarah Rea Bradstreet, dau. of John and Sarah (Rea) Bradstreet. Aged 
81 yrs., 3 mos., 18 dys. 

Mario Paglia Roberto, son of Alphonse and Grazia (Paglia) Roberto. 
Aged 14 dys. 

Mary E. Todd, widow of Asahel H. Todd, dau. of Albert and Hannah 
(Hayward) Perley. Aged 77 yrs., 11 mos., 26 dys. 

Henry B. Williams, son of Thomas H. and Susan M. (Richards) 
Williams. Aged 62 yrs., 10 mos., 24 dys. 

Thomas Fuller, son of Benjamin and Esther (Wilkins) Fuller. Aged 
80 yrs. 

Harriet Rose Towne, dau. of Benjamin Boardman and Esther (Pea- 
body) Towne. Aged 81 yrs., 9 mos., 28 dys. 

Abbie A. Smith, dau. of Augustus W. and Harriet B. (Shaw) Smith. 
Aged 57 yrs., 5 mos., 1 dy. 



144 



CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS IN 1920. 



DEATHS IN OTHER PLACES— INTERMENT IN TOPSFIELD 



1920. 



Jan. 


30. 


Feb. 


7. 


Feb. 


16. 


May 


13. 


May 


17. 


June 


19. 


June 


22. 


Sept. 


28. 


Nov. 


22. 


Dec. 


18. 



John Warren Ray, died in Haverhill, Mass. Aged 76 yrs., 6 mos., 29 dys, 
Jeremiah Hanlon, died in Danvers, Mass. Aged 64 yrs., 10 mos. 
Carrie Winslow, died in Danvers, Mass. Aged 60 yrs., 8 mos., 13 dys. 
Abbie K. Roote, died in Barre, Mass. Aged 88 yrs., 1 mo., 4 dys. 
James N. McPhee, died in Beverly, Mass. Aged 73 yrs., 11 mos., 2 dys. 
Mary Balch, died in Danvers, Mass. Aged 76 yrs., 3 mos., 9 dys. 

Mary E. Potter, died in Danvers, Mass. Aged 65 yrs., 3 mos. 20 dys. 
Mary E. Welch, died in Methuen, Mass. Aged 91 yrs., 10 mos., 10 dys. 
Esther Dustin Thompson, died in Salem; Mass. Aged 24 yrs., 4 mos. 
23 dys. 

Mary J. Waters, died in Lowell, Mass. Aged 83 yrs., 4 mos., 5 dys. 



CHRONOLOGY. OF EVENTS IN 1920 



January 6. 

March 1. 
March 9. 

March 17. 

August 

September 4. 



Topsfield Community Club votes to maintain a Visiting and School 
nurse. 

Severe winter with heavy fall of snow. 

No trains for three days because of snow storm. 

No trains for three days because of ice storm. Men walked home 
from Salem. Grocer’s stocks of food supplies ran low. 

Ipswich river flooded ; Rowley bridge and Balch’s bridge closed to 
traffic. 

James Frost of Newburyport appointed principal of the High 
School. 

Annual Cattle Show and Fair. 



BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE YEAR 1920 

Webster estate. River St., purchased by John L. Salstonstall of Beverly and the 
house remodelled and additions made ; the bam taken down ; the Mrs. Dora 
Poole house. South Main St., moved over the hill and relocated on River St. 
where it was remodelled. 

Fred Watson house. Prospect St. (formerly the Conley house on River St.), re- 
moved to the Price estate on the other side of Prospect St. 

Bam at the Hoyt place, Ipswich St. near Ipswich line, owned by Bradley W. 
Palmer, taken down. 

Charles Sweeney house, Boxford Road, removed to Pemberton St. 

Jacob Towne house. High St. near Summer St., bought by Charles J. Peabody 
and remodelled ; new outbuildings erected. 



r 



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